The time is right to migrate to Linux, but the question is, where do you start—and how? Novell has a few ideas...This is the third article in a three-part series that describes six straight-forward migration projects. For each project you read about in this series, you'll walk away with an understanding of what you need to learn, know and do to install a specific network service on a server running Novell Open Enterprise Server for Linux.
Open Enterprise Server offers both NetWare 6.5 and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 in one package, allowing you to incorporate one or both of these platforms into your network. With Open Enterprise Server, NetWare and Linux coexist peacefully, enabling you to run both side by side without a hitch. Regardless of the platform (or platforms) you choose, Open Enterprise Server offers all of the staple Novell services—including networking, identity, communication, collaboration and application services.
The first article in this series presents descriptions of Projects 1 and 2. For Project 1, the article explains how to install Open Enterprise Server for Linux complete with Novell eDirectory into an existing tree. For Project 2, the article provides an overview of the steps required to migrate Novell Storage Services (NSS) from an existing server running NetWare 5.1 or later to Open Enterprise Server for Linux. (See "Blow Your Mind," Novell Connection, July/August 2005.)
The time is right to migrate to Linux, but the question is, where do you start—and how?
The second article in this series presents descriptions of Projects 3 and 4. For Project 3, the article provides an overview of the steps you take to upgrade Novell queue-based printing on a server running NetWare 5.1 or later to Novell iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for Linux Support Pack SP 1. For Project 4, the article describes how to deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP 1 as a standalone Novell iFolder 3.1 server. (See "The Perfect Connection," Novell Connection, September/October 2005.)
This article presents descriptions of Projects 5 and 6, the last two migration projects in this series. For Project 5, the article explains the gist of the steps you take to move existing files associated with Apache, MySQL and PHP/Perl (collectively referred to as AMP) off of a server running NetWare 6.0 or NetWare 6.5 onto a single Open Enterprise Server for Linux. For Project 6, the article describes how you can set up Open Enterprise Server for Linux to access an iSCSI Storage Area Network (SAN).
Moving AMP from NetWare to Open Enterprise Server for Linux
Moving AMP from NetWare to Linux makes sense. In fact, it's arguably one of the most logical migration projects to tackle. After all, "Linux is the father of all of this technology," says Novell's Brad Nicholes. A member of the Apache Software Foundation and Novell's lead developer on Apache, Nicholes explains that all AMP components have Linux roots: "Apache was originally targeted for Linux back in 1995 and, likewise, Perl, PHP and MySQL were developed first for Linux." (For a fun-fact-to-know-and-learn about Apache, see "Did You Know...")
If the fact that AMP was born on Linux isn't reason enough for you to tackle the LAMP switch (that is, AMP on Linux), how about the fact that LAMP is among the most popular Web development platforms. Consequently, you can find a wealth of information about AMP on Linux from the open-source community—more information, in fact, then you will ever find about AMP on NetWare. (See Figure 1.) And because LAMP so shines, you will find a wealth of LAMP-compatible products and services.
The bottom line, according to Nicholes, is this: moving AMP from NetWare to Linux does not merely ensure that you maintain the same base level of functionality; doing so "opens a whole new world of possibilities."
So what kind of effort will a project like this require? The project description that follows provides just enough detail for you to answer precisely that. This project description covers the gist of the steps you'd take to move existing AMP files from a NetWare 6.0 or NetWare 6.5 server to a single Open Enterprise Server for Linux. Because this project assumes that you're running NetWare, this description further assumes that you'll install Open Enterprise Server for Linux into an existing eDirectory tree.
The key word in the last paragraph is "gist." (If you missed that word, re-read sentence three in the previous paragraph.) Do not expect to find a step-by-step process for migrating your AMP files from NetWare to Linux here. First, that level of detail exceeds the scope of this series. Second, a one-size-fits-all process for migrating AMP components from NetWare to Linux simply doesn't exist.
That said, if you've configured Apache, MySQL, Perl and PHP on NetWare, you'll probably have little difficulty doing so on Linux, because the process is very similar.
Preparing to Move AMP from NetWare
To prepare to move AMP files from NetWare 6.0 or NetWare 6.5 to Open Enterprise Server for Linux, you need to know, have and do a few things.
What You Should Know
- Most of the critical differences between installing and configuring AMP on Linux versus AMP on NetWare boil down to the differences between Linux and NetWare.
- If you've installed and configured AMP on NetWare and have a working knowledge of Linux, then this project should be manageable for you.
- Before you start, familiarize yourself with the AMP components' soon-to-be-new Linux home. For example, you should know where to install the AMP components, where Linux AMP configuration files are located, how to edit these configuration files and how file paths on Linux differ from file paths on NetWare.
- Good news: Apache 2.0.50 and MySQL 4.0.21 packages install automatically when you install Open Enterprise Server for Linux using the Full Installation pattern.
- Did you catch that? You must use the Full Installation pattern if you want the Apache and MySQL packages to install automatically. If you use the default installation pattern, that is, the Novell Open Enterprise Server pattern (that you were instructed to use in Project 1 of this series), you will have to use YaST to install the Apache and MySQL packages later. This isn't a big deal but is an unnecessary extra step.
- And speaking of extra steps, PHP and Perl do not install automatically when you install Open Enterprise Server for Linux—no matter which installation pattern you choose.
- Back to the good news: PHP 5 and Perl 5.8.4 are included with Open Enterprise Server for Linux (and NetWare) and you can install both after the initial server installation.
- Before you switch from AMP on NetWare to LAMP, you should probably know this: the nifty Web interface that you've been using on NetWare to manage your Web site configuration—you know the one I'm talking about, Apache Manager—you won't get that with LAMP. You'll complete most of the AMP administrative tasks on Linux from the command line using a text editor.
Good News: Apache and Mysql install automatically when you install Open Enterprise Server for Linux using the full installation pattern.
What You Need to Have
- To move AMP files from your NetWare to Linux server, you need Root privileges on Linux and sufficient rights on NetWare to copy your files off of the server.
- Hardware requirements for your new LAMP server should match the general minimum requirements for Open Enterprise Server for Linux (below). Additional hardware requirements will depend on the LAMP applications you run on this box.
- Finally (and of course), you need the CDs for Open Enterprise Server for Linux that you created and labeled from the ISO image files you downloaded from novell.com or that you got from your Novell reseller. (For more information, see "Blow Your Mind," Novell Connection, July/August 2005.
For more information on installing and configuring Novell client for Linux, see "Novell Client for Linux Installation and Administration Guide."
What You Must Do
- Install Novell Open Enterprise Server for Linux into your existing eDirectory tree using the Full Installation pattern.
- Using YaST, install and load the Perl and PHP modules (included with the Apache 2.0 software) and select the libraries for each that you'll need on this Open Enterprise Server for Linux. For example, you might select php4ldap (assuming you're using the LDAP interface), php4mysql (if you use MySQL) and php4session (assuming you will be doing bulletin board or other similar operations that require you to maintain sessions). (See Figure 2.)
- Assuming you plan to enable authentication through eDirectory by way of the LDAP interface, use YaST to install and load the LDAP authentication module (also included with Apache 2.0).
- To simplify the process of moving files from your NetWare to Linux server, you can use Novell Client for Linux (included with Open Enterprise Server for Linux). Of course, you have other options for accomplishing this same task. If you already have a favorite, alternative method, use it. If you don't, why not try this one?
- Install Novell Client for Linux (included with Open Enterprise Server for Linux) on a workstation running one of the following:
- Novell Linux Desktop 9 SP2 or later (recommended)
- Novell Linux Desktop 9 SP1
- SUSE Linux Professional 9.3
- Using the Novell Client Configuration Wizard (included with Novell Client for Linux), configure the client. (For more information on installing and configuring Novell Client for Linux, see "Novell Client for Linux Installation and Administration Guide."
- Using the Novell Client for Linux, map a drive to your source NetWare 6.0 or NetWare 6.5 server and your destination Open Enterprise Server for Linux. (For more information, see the "Novell Client for Linux User Guide".)
|System Component||Minimum Requirements||Recommended|
|Computer||Server-class with Pentium II or AMD K7 450 MHz processor||Server-class with Pentium III, Pentium III Xeon, Pentium 4, Intel Xeon 700 MHz, AMD K8 CPUs (Athlon64 and Opteron), Intel EM64T or higher processor|
|Memory||512 MB RAM||1 GB RAM|
|Free Disk Space||2 GB of available, unpartitioned disk space||10 GB|
|CD-ROM Drive||4X CD-ROM drive||48X CD-ROM drive|
iSCSI enables you to create a SAN that is arguably as powerful and fast as a fibre channel SAN at a fraction of the cost. By some reports, a fibre channel SAN can cost as much a nine times more than an iSCSI SAN.
Installing AMP on Open Enterprise Server for Linux
Once you have installed the AMP components and have mapped drives to your source and destination servers, you may begin moving existing Apache, MySQL and Perl/PHP files from off one server to the other.
- Move your static Web pages from the NetWare server to Open Enterprise Server for Linux. By default, these pages are stored in the document root directory, which on NetWare is /apache2/htdocs and on Linux is /srv/www/htdocs/.
- Using Novell Linux Client (and by way of the drives you mapped to your source NetWare server), browse to the /apache2/htdocs directory on NetWare.
- Copy the files and folders that you created in the /apache2/htdocs directory on NetWare and paste them into the /srv/www/htdocs/ directory on Linux. (Copy and paste only the files that you or one of your co-workers created.)
- If you have any PHP or Perl scripts on NetWare, copy these script files from your source NetWare server to the appropriate directory on Open Enterprise Server for Linux.
- For example, suppose you are using the cgi-bin directory as the script alias for your scripting files. From the drive you mapped to the source NetWare server, use Novell Client for Linux to browse to the cgi-bin on NetWare, which by default is /apache2/cgi-bin.
- Next, copy the files in /apache2/cgi-bin and paste them into the cgi-bin directory on Linux, which by default is /srv/www/cgi-bin.
- Change any of the specific paths noted in your script and configuration files to reflect the files' new location.
- Move MySQL files from the source NetWare server to the destination Linux server. (Assuming you created these files using MySQL 4.0.x and are copying them to the version of MySQL that ships with Open Enterprise Server for Linux (MySQL 4.0.21), you can copy and paste these files without taking additional steps.)
- In the /etc/apache2/vhost.conf file, you'll need to update information to point to the files' new home. For example, you'll need to change the following:
- the IP address (to that of the new Open Enterprise Server for Linux)
- the directory paths for the document root directory (which is /srv/www/htdocs/ on Linux, by default)
- the script and any other alias locations or directory paths
As mentioned, the specific steps that you take for moving existing AMP files from a NetWare server to Open Enterprise Server for Linux will vary. The project and individual steps in the project may be more or less complex, depending upon, among other variables, your current AMP configuration. However, you now have the gist of the job.
iSCSI enables you to build your san using relatively inexpensive and fast gigabit ethernet hardware, you get a powerful SAN at a fraction of the cost of fibre channel.
Setting Up Open Enterprise Server for Linux to Access an iSCSI SAN
Another project you may wish to consider is migrating some of your existing iSCSI services on NetWare to Novell Open Enterprise Server for Linux. You can set up Open Enterprise Server for Linux to access an iSCSI SAN—but why would you want to? Well, one reason is because the cost efficiency of Linux is a perfect match for a cost-effective iSCSI SAN. But before I continue, a brief review is in order. What are iSCSI SANs and just how cost effective are they?
Published as IETF RFC 3720 in April 2004, Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) is an industry standard that defines a transport protocol for tunneling SCSI protocols through TCP/IP.
What iSCSI is and does, however, is not nearly as interesting as what it enables: using iSCSI, you can create SANs (also known as shared disk subsystems) that rival fibre channel SANs in terms of function and speed. More important, because iSCSI enables you to build your SAN using relatively inexpensive and fast gigabit Ethernet hardware, you get a powerful SAN at a fraction of the cost of fibre channel. (See Figure 3.) In fact, sharing reports from various Novell resellers, Novell product manager Richard Jones says that iSCSI SANs can cost as much as nine times less than their fibre channel rivals.
Now where does Open Enterprise Server for Linux fit into this lovely image of inexpensive storage? As you probably know, iSCSI SANs pass storage back and forth between backend storage and LAN users by way of an initiator and a target. (See Figure 4.) Simply put, an initiator is a machine that requests storage service, and a target is a server that returns the requested storage. (Stated another, even simpler way, the terms initiator and target are synonymous with client and server, respectively.)
As you may know, Novell provides both target and initiator software on NetWare. Open Enterprise Server for NetWare, for example, includes both iSCSI initiator and iSCSI target software. Novell also offers iSCSI initiator software for NetWare 5.1 and NetWare 6.0 and includes initiator software with NetWare 6.5. NetWare 6.5 also ships with iSCSI target software, which is not available for earlier versions of NetWare.
Like Open Enterprise Server for NetWare, Open Enterprise Server for Linux includes iSCSI initiator software. To be specific, Open Enterprise Server for Linux ships with Cisco Open Source initiator software for the Linux 2.6 kernel. This iSCSI initiator software was included first in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 8 (Support Pack 3) and now ships with both SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 and Open Enterprise Server for Linux.
Unlike Open Enterprise Server for NetWare, Open Enterprise Server for Linux does not include iSCSI target software. Why not? She answer is pretty simple: no commercially supported iSCSI target software is available at this time for Linux. Novell will include this little gem of a package in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10. (For more information about experimental and proprietary target software for Linux, see the "The Target Experiment" below.)
For this project, you will read about the basic steps you take to set up Open Enterprise Server for Linux as an iSCSI initiator. The result of this project is an Open Enterprise Server for Linux capable of requesting (on behalf of LAN clients) data from a an iSCSI target server.
Preparing to Deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux as an iSCSI Initiator
Before you deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux as an iSCSI initiator, you should know, have and do at least this much.
What You Need to Know
- Remember, Open Enterprise Server for Linux includes only iSCSI initiator software; it does not include iSCSI target software. For your target server, you may use one of the following:
- iSCSI target software on NetWare 6.5
- iSCSI target software on Open Enterprise Server for NetWare
- Third-party iSCSI target software
- You may need to take an additional step or two to ensure communications between your Linux iSCSI initiator and your iSCSI target server, depending on the target software you use.
What You Need to Have
- To complete this project with relative ease, you should be familiar with the following:
- Ethernet LAN hardware
- File-system and volume management
- You need Root privileges on the Linux box you plan to set up as an iSCSI initiator (because only a root user can modify iscsi.conf and start an iSCSI initiator daemon).
What You Need to Do
- If you haven't already done so, install Open Enterprise Server for Linux using the default pattern.
- If you're running initiator software on NetWare 6.5 or Open Enterprise Server for NetWare, then take a break: the Novell Storage Services (NSS) data on the storage subsystem is already in a format that your new iSCSI initiator on Open Enterprise Server for Linux can mount.
- If you're running initiator software on NetWare 5.1 or NetWare 6.0, then no break for you! You need to convert or migrate the NSS data on the target storage array:
- One way (arguably the easiest way) to do so is to upgrade the initiator server platform to NetWare 6.5 or Open Enterprise Server for NetWare.
- The next time the disk is mounted, NetWare will update the NSS data to a format that your soon-to-be-deployed Linux iSCSI initiator can mount.
Deploying Open Enterprise Server for Linux as an iSCSI Initiator
Once you have prepared your current iSCSI SAN for the soon-to-bedeployed Linux iSCSI initiator, you're ready to install and configure the iSCSI initiator software on Open Enterprise Server for Linux.
- Install the iSCSI initiator software
- Use the YaST install/remove software option
- Search for "Linux iSCSI"
- If you are using target software running on either NetWare 6.5 or Open Enterprise Server for NetWare:
- Make Open Enterprise Server for Linux (the one running the iSCSI initiator software) a trustee of your iSCSI target server in eDirectory.
- Create the following parameters in the /etc/iscsi.conf file. (See Figure 5.)
- Set the "DiscoveryAddress" to reflect the IP address of your iSCSI target server.
- Set the burst and buffer size parameters (to 262144).
- Edit the initiatorname.iscsi file, replacing the numbers that follow the colon with the fully distinguished name of the Open Enterprise Server for Linux that you have set up as the iSCSI initiator. (See Figure 5.)
- If you're using third-party target software:
- edit the /etc/iscsi.conf and initatorname.iscsi files according to product documentation.
- Also, set up a test environment to ensure compatibility between your target and the new initiator software running on Open Enterprise Server for Linux.
- Start the iSCSI initiator daemon and connect
- To do so, type /etc/init.d/iscsi start at the command line)
- After starting the iSCSI initiator daemon, find the Device Name that maps to your iSCSI target.
- On the iSCSI target, format the iSCSI partitions by typing fdisk /dev/iscsiDeviceName, for example, /dev/sdbl.
- Create a file system on this iSCSI partition using the mkfs command.
- Mount the file system on the Linux file system tree using the Linux mount command.
- Configure the system to automatically start the initiator at bootup
- To do so, type chkconfig iscsi on at the command line
Assuming that you already have installed Open Enterprise Server for Linux, you'll need only about 30 minutes to configure it to access your iSCSI SAN.
You Are Here—Where to Next?
If you've read all three articles in this series, you should understand the gist of what you need to have, know and do to achieve the following:
- Incorporate Open Enterprise Server for Linux into an existing eDirectory tree
- Migrate Novell Storage Services files from an existing NetWare server to Open Enterprise Server for Linux
- Upgrade queue-based print services on a NetWare server to iPrint services on Open Enterprise Server for Linux
- Deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux as a standalone iFolder 3.1 server
- Move Apache, MySQL and PHP/Perl files from an existing NetWare 6.0 or NetWare 6.5 server to Open Enterprise Server for Linux
- Deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux as an iSCSI initiator
Of course, these projects represent only a handful of the possibilities for Open Enterprise Server for Linux, so stop reading, and start acting. Set up a test environment and sample one, two, or all of these projects—and then tackle some of your own. Jot down a few notes during the process and write to us when you're done: we'd like to hear what you're doing with Linux.