AppNote: How to Implement Login Scripts into a Pure Linux Environment
Novell Cool Solutions: AppNote
By Eugene Phua
Digg This -
Posted: 11 Jul 2005
Everyone is talking about Linux. You are an IT administrator in a company looking to cut costs and find alternatives to the Windows operating systems. You have heard how great Linux is and you decided to give it a try. You installed a Linux server and client, meddled around a little and you discovered one huge shortcoming in Linux - you can't implement login scripts. So now you have a big problem. You know that in order for users to accept Linux, the users should have the same or at least a similar experience as when they are using a Windows workstation. This means that if users login on the Windows workstation and they are able to access 5 network drives which are automatically mapped to their workstation, they will expect the same 5 networks drives on a Linux workstation. If the users have to manually map their network drives or if the administrators have to do it for their users, then acceptance of Linux by users and administrators becomes a lot harder.
Who this document is for
This AppNote is written for administrators who are thinking of making a switch to Linux. However, it assumes that you have a basic knowledge of Linux. This is because bash shell scripting is required to make the login script work. While you do not have to do any scripting, and the scripts in this AppNote will be explained in detail, without some basic knowledge you may be lost in the explanation.
This AppNote is written for small- and medium-sized companies. This solution is especially suitable for companies whose Windows servers are solely used for authentication and file services. Therefore, enterprise customers may not find this AppNote applicable to their environment.
This AppNote is written for existing Linux administrators. Hopefully, this AppNote will make your life easier.
The currently available solution
Those who are Windows administrators know how easy it is to give users access to network folders. Administrators configure login scripts to map the appropriate drives and assign the login scripts to users or to groups which the users belong to. This is unfortunately not so easy in the Linux world. So here are the current solutions available:
- Change all network drive to be accessed through web browser.
Since network drives are no longer mapped to users' local drives, all network drives are accessed through the web browser. Unfortunately, users who are used to the 'drag-and-drop' method of file copying and the 'click-and-open' method of accessing files and applications will not like the web browser approach of file access. The web browser approach basically allows users to access their files from the browser, but in order to modify files, files have to be downloaded to their workstation and then uploaded after the files are modified.
- Manually configure the FSTAB file on Linux Client.
In the Windows environment, the server shared drives are "mapped" to the Windows client. In the Linux environment, the server shared drives are "mounted". Since there is no way to automate the mount point from a central location, in order to get a server's shared drives mounted on a Linux Client, the mount points have to be manually configured on each Linux Client's FSTAB file. The problem with this is that users will not be able to access the FSTAB file because only root accounts have access. So assuming that only the administrator can modify the FSTAB file, it is extremely tedious for administrators to manually configure each users' workstation.
- Install Client software on each Linux workstation which automatically creates mount point.
At the writing of this AppNote, the beta version of Novell Client is available. However, the Novell Client only does NCP mount. NFS and Samba mount is not possible at this time.
- Proprietary Software
Proprietary software provided by various vendors will allow users to access data stored on servers. For example, Novell has NetStorage and iFolder. However, these applications still do not address the need for automatic creation of mount points on Linux Clients.
Synopsis of the solution
This section explains how to get a login script to run on a Linux desktop. A login script is basically a BASH script that will run at startup and that can be configured centrally by the administrator. This can be done in the following way:
- The FSTAB file of a Linux desktop is configured so that the Linux desktop will automount an NFS mountpoint on the Linux server at startup.
- The NFS mountpoint will contain a BASH script.
- The Linux Desktop is configured to run a KDE startup script. This startup script is actually the BASH script that is stored on the Linux server.
This means that the administrator can configure the BASH script centrally on the Linux server and the Linux Desktop should run the script on startup. The BASH script can be written to mount the different mountpoints for different users or control the behavior of the Desktop. Based on this idea, this BASH script essentially makes it a login script.
The concept sounds simple, but the devil is in the details.
Theoretically, this should work on any distribution on Linux. However, the setup documented here is based on the following:
Novell Linux Desktop 9 SP1 (NLD9SP1)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 (SLES9)
Install Open LDAP services on SLES9
Install NFS services on NLD9SP1 and SLES9
Now that we have gotten the introduction out of the way, let's start getting our hands dirty.
Configuring the Linux Server
- Make a directory under /etc directory called /etc/loginscript. Create another directory under that called /etc/loginscript/secure.
- Make a directory called /mapdrives.
- Assign permission 755 to /mapdrives so that users can cd into the /mapdrives directory.
- Create another directory under that called /mapdrives/finance. This will represent our shared folder for the finance department.
Configure NFS services
- Start YaST > Network Services > NFS Server. Choose the option 'Start NFS Server' and click Next
- Configure the NFS to export directories as shown below. Below shows the creation of 3 NFS export directories. Please take note of the options.
- /etc/loginscript contains the loginscript and all necessary files to run the loginscript
- /home/ contains the home folder which is going to be mounted on every Linux client /home folder.
- /mapdrives/ contains the departmental shared files
Configure LDAP services
- Start YaST > Network Services > LDAP Server. Check the option 'Start LDAP Server' and click on the 'Configure' button. If you install LDAP services at install, the LDAP database created should follow your domain name as shown below. In this setup, the database name is: dc=digitalairlines,dc=com
- Start YaST > Network Services > LDAP Client. Choose the 'Use LDAP' option.
- Click on 'Advance Configuration' button to make sure the configurations are correct.
Create LDAP group
- Start YaST > Security and Users > Edit and create groups. Key in the LDAP password. This should be the same as the ROOT password unless you have changed it.
- Make sure that the the Groups button is checked and click the ADD button. Create the 'finance' group in the GroupName and click Next twice.
- On the 'Set Filter' button, set the filter to LDAP Groups to make sure that a LDAP group is created and not a local group.
- Click 'Finish' to complete the process.
Create LDAP user
- Start YaST > Security and Users > Edit and create users. Key in the LDAP password. This should be the same as the ROOT password unless you have changed it.
- Make sure that the the Groups button is checked and click the ADD button. Create a test user by click the ADD button. Input the First Name, Last Name, User Login, password and click Details.
- Assign the LDAP Finance Group to the user. Click Next twice then create user.
- On the 'Set Filter' button, set the filter to LDAP Users to make sure that a LDAP user is created and not a local user.
- Click 'Finish' to complete the process.
Change Permission for CHMOD file
- Copy /bin/chmod to /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod. Set the SUID for /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod. You can do by typing the command:
chmod u+s /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod
Configuring the LDAPSCRIPT file
- In the /etc/loginscript/secure folder, create a text file called ldapscript. Make the ldapscript file executable. Copy the following script into the ldapscript file.
#!/bin/bash #LDAPSCRIPT rm /etc/loginscript/secure/group rm /etc/loginscript/secure/allgroup ldapsearch -x -b "ou=group,dc=digitalairlines,dc=com" dn | grep "dn: cn=" | cut -f2 -d '=' | cut -f1 -d ',' | ( while read ldapgroup do echo $ldapgroup >> /etc/loginscript/secure/allgroup echo $ldapgroup: > /etc/loginscript/secure/$ldapgroup ldapsearch -x -b "ou=group,dc=digitalairlines,dc=com" "cn=$ldapgroup" member | grep "member: uid=" | cut -f2 -d '=' | cut -f1 -d ',' | ( while read ldapmember do echo $ldapmember >> /etc/loginscript/secure/$ldapgroup done) # This is to convert carriage return to space cat /etc/loginscript/secure/$ldapgroup | tr '\012' ' ' >> /etc/loginscript/secure/group # This is insert a carriage return to the EOL echo ' ' >> /etc/loginscript/secure/group rm /etc/loginscript/secure/$ldapgroup done)
The above ldapscript does the following:
- Runs an LDAP Search on its own LDAP database
- Writes the names of all groups into the file: /etc/loginscript/secure/allgroup
- Writes the names of all groups and the members who belong to the groups into /etc/loginscript/secure/group
- The syntax of the /etc/loginscript/secure/group is the same as /etc/group
Note: For your script to work, replace dc=digitalairlines,dc=com with your own database name.
Configuring the CRONTAB file
- In the /etc/crontab file, add the following line so that the ldapscript will run every minute. The reason we want this is that if the administrator makes a change to the LDAP group and users, the /etc/loginscript/secure/group will reflect the change:
- Check the /etc/loginscript/secure/allgroup file. You should see 'finance'. Check the /etc/loginscript/secure/group file. You should see 'finance: testuser'. If you don't see either of these files, either the script is wrong or the script is not running.
* * * * * root /etc/loginscript/secure/ldapscript
Configuring the LOGINSCRIPT file
- In the /etc/loginscript/secure folder, create a text file called loginscript. Copy the script into the loginscript file.
#!/bin/bash #LOGINSCRIPT /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod 777 /etc/fstab /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod 777 /mapdrives cat /etc/loginscript/secure/group | grep `whoami` | cut -d: -f1 > ~/personalgroup rmdir /mapdrives/* rm ~/Desktop/[A-Z]drive:* cp /etc/fstab ~/fstab cat ~/personalgroup | ( while read mapgroup do case $mapgroup in finance) mkdir /mapdrives/finance; echo "18.104.22.168:/mapdrives/finance /mapdrives/finance nfs defaults,users 0 0" >> /etc/fstab; mount /mapdrives/finance; ln -s /mapdrives/finance ~/Desktop/Fdrive:Finance;; *) echo;; esac done ) cp ~/fstab /etc/fstab /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod 744 /etc/fstab /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod 744 /mapdrives rm ~/personalgroup
The above loginscript does the following:
- It reads the /etc/loginscript/secure/group file, parses the file to find out the group that the user belongs to and writes the result into ~/personalgroup file
- Makes a copy of the /etc/fstab into ~/fstab
- Execute chmod to change /etc/fstab permission to 777. Ordinary, this cannot be done because chmod can only be run by ROOT. However, we are running chmod from /etc/loginscript/secure directory which has the SUID bit set
- It reads the ~/personalgroup file and if the user belongs to the finance group, it will:
- Make a /mapdrives/finance directory on the Linux workstation.
- Add a line into the /etc/fstab file to allow the user to do an NFS mount. This is because NFS mount is not allowed by normal user unless the entry is in the /etc/fstab file. **Note: Replace the IP address with the IP address of your own NFS server.
- Create a symbolic link for the finance directory and place it on the desktop.
Configuring LOGINSCRIPT to autostart
- Open Konqueror and under the View option, set Konqueror to 'Show Hidden Files'
- Create /etc/skel/.kde and /etc/skel/.kde/Autostart.
- Create an application in the directory /etc/skel/.kde/Autostart. Link this application to /etc/loginscript/secure/loginscript. This is necessary so that every user's home directory will contain an application that will run the loginscript when KDE starts.
Note: Theoretically, you can also create a symbolic link in a ~/.profile or /etc/profile.local to the /etc/loginscript/secure/loginscript and the login script will still run. However, the login script will also run when you are in runlevel3 or when you start a terminal session. This, I think, is undesirable. The desired effect is for the login script to run only when X-windows starts and the only way is to run the loginscript in the KDE or GNOME startup script.
Configuring the Linux Client
- When you install your Linux Client, choose KDE as your default Desktop. If you chose GNOME, you can always switch to KDE at the Login screen. On the Login screen, there is a 'Session' icon. Click 'Session' and choose 'KDE Desktop'
- Login as ROOT. This is because we need to configure the Linux client.
- Make a directory under /etc directory called /etc/loginscript.
- Make directory: /mapdrives.
- Start YaST > Network Services > LDAP Client. This configuration should be the same as the LDAP Client configuration on the Linux server.
- Test the LDAP configuration by starting YaST > Security and Users > Edit and create users. Set the filter to 'LDAP Users'. You should be prompted for the LDAP password. After you key in the password, you should see the test user that you created on the Linux server.
- Start YaST > Network Services > NFS Client. Configure the NFS Client as shown. Below shows the configuration of 2 NFS mount points. Please take note of the options.
- /etc/loginscript contains the loginscript and all necessary files to run the loginscript. The options will mount as auto, read-only, suid, dev, nouser, async.
- /home directory contains the user's personal data and other necessary information required by KDE. User will not use the home directory locally. The Linux server /home directory is mounted to the Linux workstation /home directory. The options will mount as defaults.
The above 2 options are shown in the screen shot below.
That's all!!! Logout as ROOT and login as test user that you created. You should see the Finance folder created on the Desktop.
Tightening the Security
Now that you have configured the login script, you probably figured out that this setup is not very secure. First of all, you would have realized that users will be able to access the /etc/loginscript/secure folder. This also means that they will be able to access /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod which has the SUID bit set. This is extremely dangerous because it means that the users can change any file permissions on their workstations. Therefore, we need to tighten up the security.
- Change the /etc/loginscript/secure directory permission on the Linux server to 711.
Changing the permission on this directory means that users will be able to execute the login script and any other applications on the Linux server, but users will not be able to browse the directory. The less the users can see, the less likely they will be able to meddle with the files.
- Change the permission on all the users' home directories to 700.
This is necessary because by default file permission is 744. Leaving the default permission to 744 means that other users will be able to see the contents of each users' folder. By changing the permission of the users' home directory to 700, only the owners will have access to their own home directory.
- Change the permission of the /mapdrives/finance folder to 760.
Change the group of /mapdrives/finance to finance. This means that only users belonging to group finance will be able to access the finance folder.
- Change the permission of the /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod and the /etc/loginscript/secure/loginscript files on the Linux server.
Even though the permission of the /etc/loginscript/secure on the Linux server has been changed to 711, the users will still be able to see the loginscript if they wanted. It is unfortunate that the file permission is not able to set as execute only. Linux file permission as a minimum requires a read permission (permission 4), which means that to set the execute permission, the read permission must also be set. So the trick is to set the permission by default to no access (700) and only when the users login, the permission is changed only a few seconds before changing back to 700. To do this:
- Turn on logging for open LDAP server
- On the Linux server, in the /etc/syslog.conf file, add the following line:
- On the Linux server, in the /etc/slpd.conf file, change the loglevel to 256.
- On the Linux server, in the /etc/syslog.conf file, add the following line:
- In the /etc/loginscript/secure folder, create a text file called changepermission. Copy the script below into the changepermission file.
#!/bin/bash #CHANGEPERMISSION Script foo=1 while [ "$foo" -ne 2 ] do now=`date '+%b %e %R'` cat /var/log/ldap.log | grep "$todaydate" | grep "BIND dn=\"uid" > / etc/loginscript/secure/result if [ -s /etc/loginscript/secure/result ]; then chmod u+s /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod chmod 755 /etc/loginscript/secure/loginscript sleep 60 chmod u-s /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod chmod 700 /etc/loginscript/secure/loginscript rm /home/loginscript/secure/result fi done
The above changepermission script does the following:
- Set the condition to run the script perpetually (until foo=2).
- Set the time (Date, Hour, Minute) into variable 'now'.
- Poll /var/logl/ldap.log and grep data that has the present time, and with the entry 'BIND dn'. Redirect result into /etc/loginscript/secure/result. If the grep command produces some result, the /etc/loginscript/secure/result file will be greater than 0 byte.
- Test the etc/loginscript/secure/result file. If file is greater than 0 byte, then set the SUID for /etc/loginscript/secure/chmod and change /etc/loginscript/secure/loginscript to 755.
- Wait for 60 seconds and then change the files back to default.
- Remove /etc/loginscript/secure/result file.
- Unlike eDirectory, OpenLDAP does not allow users created on one server to be synchronized to other servers. This means that users can only authenticate to the OpenLDAP server on which the users' accounts are created. This means that this method is not for enterprise customers. You can, of course, use eDirectory as your LDAP server, but this will require modifying the LDAP schema on your eDirectory to enable the Linux client to login. This is beyond the scope of this document.
- Obviously, this method does not provide the greatest security. The greatest vulnerability is the 60 seconds between a user logging in and after the changepermission script changes the file permission back to the default. Of course, we can always tighten up the security by reducing the sleep time further. But bear in mind, that if the sleep time is too short, the users will not be able to run the login script because of lack of permission.
- This script has been tested with 2 Linux workstations and it works. The performance of this method in a production environment is not known.
Despite all the limitations, the login script works. Theoretically, there are literally endless possibilities with what you can do with the login script. Because you can change the permission of files through the chmod tool, you can also add, modify and delete files. Since the behavior of Linux workstations is determined by configuration files, you can also change the behavior of the Linux desktop through the login script.
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