Centralis PrintHere: Simple Location-Based Printing for Novell iPrint
Novell Cool Solutions: Feature
By Ewen Anderson
Digg This -
Posted: 8 Mar 2005
A Centralis AppNote
Novell iPrint allows system administrators to set up standard printers which can be used by anyone in the organisation. They can also set up web pages or scripting so that users can navigate to or be automatically allocated their nearest printer. Users can also install printer drivers on-demand to get access to a new device.
Many organisations with iPrint want greater administrative control over their users printing or require a much simpler way of presenting a list of suitable printers to the user. Centralis, specialists in designing added-value solutions for Novell environments since 2001, have developed Centralis PrintHere to meet this customer requirement for simple, location-based printing.
Using the software an administrator can set up a series of defined "Locations". Centralis PrintHere allows the import of printers from Novell eDirectory? into "Printer Groups". One or more Printer Groups are then assigned to each Location. When a user logs in from any Location, they are shown only the printers in the Printer Groups assigned to that Location. Users can set up their own default printers by Location, giving them the right printer each time, even when roaming between multiple sites. Centralis PrintHere can also display any locally attached printers which are not being managed via iPrint.
For users of Citrix? MetaFrame and Windows Terminal Services, Centralis PrintHere has additional benefits. PrintHere will determine the users Location based on the information provided by their client device, rather than their server. This allows organisations with multi-site and remote working solutions to easily provide printing access, without presenting the users with a daunting list of devices and locations to choose from.
An early adopter of the solution commented:
"The IT infrastructure at NYK Logistics (UK) M&R Ltd is almost totally centralised. By making use of Citrix technology to deliver our business and desktop applications to our users throughout the UK, we operate a highly secure tightly controlled Citrix desktop for our users. Adding Centralis PrintHere to our Novell iPrint has enabled the flexibility of giving our users all the printer related options they need without compromising Citrix server security. A simple but very useful facility that, in our experience, has had very positive feedback from our users."
Simon Salloway, IT Infrastructure Manager, NYK Logistics (UK) Manufacturing and Retail Ltd.
Centralis PrintHere is currently supported for Windows devices and is available in Standard (up to 1,000 users), Corporate (up to 5,000 users) and Enterprise (unlimited) licenses, ranging in cost from £1,500 (less than $3,000) to £5,000 (less than $10,000) for the unlimited user license.
- Users do not need to search for the printers they normally use
- The administrator retains more control over printers
- Users can be prevented from installing printer drivers
- Roaming users do not need to set up and manage their own printing
- Default printers correctly set up for users when they log in at each location
- Administrators can limit users to viewing only authorised printers
- In Citrix environments a users location information is based on their client not server information
The following section is a quick guide to getting Centralis PrintHere up and running. For more detailed information please see the relevant reference sections below.
Centralis PrintHere has the following pre-requisites:
- Windows 2000 or above (Manager and Client)
Installing Centralis PrintHere
You should have administrator access to a shared data area on the network. Run the Centralis PrintHere setup.exe and choose a "Manager" installation. For installation to Citrix MetaFrame environment, please see the Advanced section at the end of this document.
Use the New Printer (import a single printer) or Import Printers Wizard (import multiple printers from one eDirectory container) to find the printers in your eDirectory and organise them into logical Printer Groups.
Defining Location Identifiers
Create a set of Location matches for use within your organisation. Note that a "Location" in PrintHere is the actual pattern against which you match either the Client Name or IP Address - it is not the name for a physical location. A Location can be either a range of IP Addresses or a partial Client Name match (e.g. ClientName*). PrintHere works on a hierarchical "first match" basis, so you need to sort the Locations within the list to make sure the most specific criteria you want to match (e.g. the client name range for your executive's portables) are at the top of your Location list. You can then assign one or more of your Printer Groups to each Location.
Users logging in from devices whose Client Name or IP Address range matches the Location are shown only the printers assigned to the matching Printer Groups.
Once you have set up some Printer Groups and assigned them to Locations, you can use the built in test features to check that all is well before you finalise the configuration of all your printers into Printer Groups and defining all your Locations.
The available features are:
Try out various IP Addresses and/or Client Names to see which Printer Groups they are assigned.
Switch on File Logging to view exactly what Centralis PrintHere is doing
Command Line Options
Use the command line switches with the Centralis PrintHere Client to simulate user interaction (e.g. /Test) or to deliver additional functionality (e.g. /Manager)
Deploying the Centralis PrintHere client
When the required Printer Groups and Locations have been defined in the database the Centralis PrintHere Client can be deployed to users.
This is carried out using the PrtHere.exe and choosing a "Client" installation. Please note that the client installation prompts for the path to the Centralis PrintHere database directory, which also holds the Centralis PrintHere license file. This creates a PrintHere.INI in the PrintHere client application directory with an entry for the "DatabasePath".
If you need to change the database directory the client can be run with the /setup switch, which allows the administrator to specify the database path.
The Printers tab in Centralis PrintHere allows the administrator to manage Printers and Printer Groups. Printer Groups are logical groupings of printers, usually named to link them to one or more of the following:
- Their physical location
- The printer type
- A specified department or group of users
For example, the printers located within the R&D department could be grouped together and named "R&D" (see Fig 1 below). The different printers available to a Marketing or Finance department in one office location could also be Grouped.
Fig 1: An Example List of Printer Groups
One or more Printer Groups can be assigned to each Location (see below). The list of printers to be displayed to a user is then created by reading the contents of the relevant Printer Group or Groups based on a Location match.
Managing Printers & Printer Groups
Centralis PrintHere provides a simple, easy to use interface for managing Printers and Printer Groups. The following items are available:
The Import button launches the Import Printers Wizard. Using the wizard, iPrint printers from eDirectory can be imported into Centralis PrintHere Manager (see Import Printers Wizard).
Creates a new Printer Group within which printers can be defined.
Selecting a Printer Group also allows a new Printer to be created within the Group. Details can be entered manually, or it is possible to Browse the eDirectory to select printers for the Group. Note that Importing Printers (see below) is a faster way of getting up and running with PrintHere if you need to create more than one printer in a Group.
Fig 2: Creating a new Printer
Deletes the selected Printer or Printer Group. Note that deleting a Printer Group will automatically cause it to be removed from any Locations to which it is assigned.
Importing Printers into Centralis PrintHere
The Import Printers Wizard provides a simple way to import one or more printers from eDirectory into Centralis PrintHere. To launch the wizard, choose either "Import Printers Wizard" from the Tools menu or go to the Printers tab and click the "Import" button. The Wizard displays the following pages:
Step 1: Import Printers from eDirectory
In this stage the administrator specifies search parameters.
Fig 3: Selecting Import Settings
Query eDirectory container
Specify the directory container you wish to search for printers. Note that a container, not a tree must be specified. The wizard also contains the option to "Include sub-containers". If this option is on, Centralis PrintHere will also query all sub-containers of the container specified above.
Time-limit the query
If this option is on, Centralis PrintHere will terminate the query if it takes longer to perform than the number of seconds specified in Timeout. By default the timeout is 60 seconds.
Step 2: eDirectory Query
Selecting "Next" advances the Import Wizard, and Centralis PrintHere Manager will query eDirectory using the specified settings. A progress bar will indicate whilst the query is in progress and once complete, the next button will be enabled. Once the search is completed, the number of printers found by Centralis PrintHere Manager will be displayed.
Step 3: Query Results
Selecting Next advances the Wizard. Centralis PrintHere will now display a list of all the iPrint printers found which matched the search criteria. By default all of the printers found will be highlighted for Import. It is possible to select None, or re-select All, using the buttons, and to use multi-select using the standard Shift and Control key methods.
Step 4: Completing the Import Wizard
Selecting Next brings up the final screen in the Wizard. This allows the administrator to select the options to be applied to the import. Note also the option to re-start the Wizard on completion, which is particularly useful if you are working though a number of eDirectory containers.
Fig 4: Completing the Import Wizard
Four options are available at this stage:
Import into Printer Group
This allows you to specify the name of the Printer Group that the imported printers will be allocated to. Existing Printer Groups are provided for you to select from, or you can define a new one. Note that it is simple to copy or move single printers between Groups, using standard drag and drop / copy methods. It is therefore possible to either import Printers into the correct Printer Group, or import them into a default Printer Group then re-assign them, depending on the number of printers and complexity of eDirectory and Printer Group structures.
Set Protocol as
The communication protocol assigned to the printers can be manually set, or inherited from the iPrint printer object.
Use Host Name in Printer URI
If this option is on, the URI of the imported printers will contain the Host Name as opposed to the IP Address.
Re-Run the wizard after import
If this option is on, the Wizard will re-start at Stage 1 with the previous settings after the Printers have been imported.
The Printers Properties dialog allows the details of an existing printer to be viewed and modified. To view the dialog of an existing printer, right click the printer in the Printers tab and select Properties... from the popup menu.
Fig 5: Printer Property Settings
Centralis PrintHere Printer Group
This is the name of the Printer Group that this printer will be allocated to. Existing Printer Groups are provided to select from, or a new one can be defined.
The following information is stored for each printer:
- Print Server - The printer's host
- Printer Name - The name of the printer
- Protocol - The communication protocol for the printer
- Default Printer - Turn this option on to make this the default printer for the selected Printer Group
You can also use the Browse button to retrieve details from an existing iPrint Printer in your eDirectory.
Locations in Centralis PrintHere are not physical locations, they are "range definitions" which allow the organisation to be divided up into a logical structure by specifying:
- A number of IP Address ranges and/or
- Whole or partial matches for Client Names
Exactly how Locations are defined will depend on both the particular structure and physical locations of each organisation and what IP Addressing or Client Name structures are available.
For example, if your HQ network is sub-netted by floors, you can set up a Location for each sub-net by making the Locations match the IP Sub-net address ranges.
The Locations tab contains the identifiers to be matched against the user's Client Name or IP Address and the names of the groups of printers to be mapped for that location. To view the tab, choose Locations from the application menu.
Fig 6: Location Settings
Matching the Location Identifier
The location identifier is supplied to Centralis PrintHere by the client device. It can be based on IP Address range, partial Client Name matching or both. More information on matching Client Names and IP Address ranges is given below.
The location match identifier can contain wild cards and sensible use of Client Names and IP subnets can make the number of entries required small and precise. To understand exactly how to use wild cards and how they will match when used, see the Advanced section "Location Pattern Matching".
The Centralis PrintHere client application determines whether to match the Client Name or IP Address depending on whether the identifier contains a full stop. If you wish a location to be matched with the IP Address it must contain at least one full stop, otherwise it will be matched with the Client Name.
The PrintHere client sequentially matches against this list of identifiers, starting with the first, so you should take this into consideration when ordering your list (see Location Priority).
The Locations tab contains the options to create a New Location by defining the Location Properties, or Delete a selected Location.
New Locations can be created using the menu or button. To view the properties of an existing Location, right click the Location and select Properties... from the popup menu.
Fig 7: Location List
It is important to note that Centralis PrintHere seeks to match the location identifier against the list of locations, starting with the first in the list. The list of locations must therefore be constructed as a hierarchy, with the known exceptions first. The application includes an option to easily move locations up and down the priority list and also to test location matching.
- Increase Priority (+) Increases the priority of the selected Location
- Decrease Priority (-) Decreases the priority of the selected Location
Using the Client Name as the Location Identifier (Pattern Match)
If the Location Match will be based on the Client Name select Pattern Match (see below) and enter the value to be matched (in this case against the user's device Client Name) in the Location Identifier field.
Fig 8: Location Identified by Client Name Pattern Match
The identifier can contain wild cards for Location Pattern Matching. In the case of the example above, the printers in the Group "Head Office Floor 1" will be displayed to anyone using devices with Client Names beginning with "CHQF1".
Using an IP Range as the Location Identifier (Pattern Match)
If the Location Match will be based on a broad match of IP Addresses, select Pattern Match (see below) and enter the address string to be matched (this must contain at least one ".") in the Location Identifier field.
Fig 9: Location Identified by IP Address Pattern Match
In the case of the example above, the printers in the Group "Edinburgh" will be displayed to anyone using devices with an IP Address beginning with "10.0.".
Using an IP Range as the Location Identifier (IP Range)
If the Location Match will be based on a specific IP Range which cannot be specified using a pattern match, select IP Address Range and use the button to the right of the Location Identifier field to enter the value range to be matched.
Fig 10: Specifying an IP Address Range
In the case of the example below, the printers in the Group "New York - Marketing" will be displayed to anyone using devices with an IP Address within the range 10.2.1.12 to 10.2.1.53.
Fig 11: Location Identified by IP Address Range Match
Assigning Printer Groups to Locations
The Location Properties form displays a list of Printer Groups Available (not assigned to this Location) and Assigned (assigned to this Location). This lists the full set of Printer Groups of printers which have been defined within Centralis PrintHere.
The Add & Remove buttons are used to transfers Printer Groups between the Available and Assigned lists for each Location.
Testing Location Matches
The Location Test tab allows you to test your configuration against any Client Name and IP Address for pre-release testing or diagnostic purposes. This allows an administrator to see what printers would be assigned to each user. To view the tab, choose Location Test from the main menu.
Fig 12: Testing the Location Identifier using an example Client Name
The Client Name and Client IP Address fields will only be enabled if Location identifiers of that type have been specified, e.g. if no IP Addresses have been specified, only Client Name matches can be tested.
If you have both Client Name and IP Address as Location identifiers, you should always enter values into both fields to ensure an accurate test.
The following variables and actions are supported:
- Client Name - Client Name you wish to test against
- Client IP Address - IP Address of client you wish to test against
- Test - Click the Test button to perform the test.
- Test Results - The results of the test are shown in the Test Results pane. The identifier which was used to make the match is displayed and the list of printers that would be created
The following global configuration options are accessed via the Preferences tab on the main menu. Please note that the File Logging Options are covered in the Advanced section.
Fig 13: Preferences
Force Default Printer Selection
Enabling this option prompts users to select their preferred default printer the first time they log in from a Location. The preferred default Printer for that Location is then saved and is automatically set for the user on subsequent logins.
Remove Additional Printers
By default, if a user changes Location, Centralis PrintHere removes any printers which were assigned to the user when they logged in from their previous Location.
Ignore Non-iPrint Default Printers
This determines whether the Centralis PrintHere client will accept a non-iPrint managed default printer to be automatically selected as the default when the application is first run.
Create Printer Timeout
This specifies the time, in seconds, that the application should wait for iPrint to create a printer before aborting. The default is 60 seconds. Note. If the installation of non-signed printer drivers causes a message to be displayed on the console then iPrint will wait for a response.
Use Default User Configuration File
The default user configuration file is '%APPDATA%\CENTRALIS\PRINTHERE.INI'. This file stores the users preferred default printer by Location. If you need to, you can specify your own file and location (e.g. to store the file in the users home directory) by turning this option off.
Allow User Overrides
Centralis PrintHere allows the administrator to enable Client configured settings to override the global settings. By default this is set to Off. Please see Overriding Global Settings in the Advanced section for more information.
Create Temporary Printers
To avoid conflict with iPrint settings the Centralis PrintHere client application does not create temporary printers by default, i.e. they are always "persistent" between sessions. Temporary printers are not normally required as Centralis PrintHere checks the printers that are required based on the Location, creates any which are not present and removes any additional ones.
Show Printer Properties
This setting determines whether the user can view printer properties in the PrintHere Client Print Manager. (See Centralis PrintHere Client User Interface).
Whenever a change is made to the Centralis PrintHere database, the application logs the changes. These can be saved as a restore point using the Save option on the File Menu. This allows the administrator to view the change history and optionally to reload any previous saved configuration at a later stage.
The Change History tab allows you to view what changes have been made to the Centralis PrintHere database, when they were done, and who did them. A Restore facility allows you to restore all or parts of your database for a given date and time. To view the tab, choose Change History from the application menu.
Fig 14: Change History
The dates and times of change history records are displayed here. Select a date from those available to view a record of the changes made on that date.
If the record you have selected contains a restore point, you can restore your Centralis PrintHere database to this date by selecting the categories you wish to restore (optionally one or more from Preferences, Printers and Locations) and clicking the Restore button. Please note that only those categories which are available to be restored on that date will be enabled.
Centralis PrintHere Client User Interface
By default Centralis PrintHere does not present a client user interface, however administrators may wish to allow users access to a printer selection and management screen to avoid giving users access to the Printers option in Control Panel.
Fig 15: Client User Interface
If the Centralis PrintHere Client is run with the optional /Manager command line switch the application runs in a different mode and displays a list of the current printers. The user can then select the default printer they require. This printer is then saved to the users configuration file as the default printer for the current location and is set as the Default Printer for that location the next time the user logs in from there. There are also options to open the printer queue and view the properties and printing preferences for the printers.
Centralis PrintHere is available in three commercial licenses:
- Standard edition (up to 1,000 users)
- Corporate edition (1,000 to 5,000 users)
- Enterprise edition (unlimited users)
The license can be obtained from Centralis or any authorised Centralis reseller. Upgrade protection and technical support are available at additional cost via email@example.com
The evaluation edition of Centralis PrintHere is fully functional and is valid for 30 days, however a message box will be displayed to users informing them that the software is not licensed and is on evaluation from Centralis.
Fig 16: Evaluation License Warning
To upgrade to a full commercial license, simply copy the license file into the application directory, use the Upgrade License feature within PrintHere and enter the product key when prompted.
Managing Database History
All changes made to the Centralis PrintHere database are recorded every time it is saved. Although the records are only small, they can build up over time and you may wish to remove some of them in order to free up disk space. To access this function, choose Manage Database History... from the Maintenance menu.
The date and times of the recorded changes are shown in this list. Select the records you wish to remove and click Delete.
Note. Removal of the history record for a particular date will also remove the ability to restore to that date and time.
Verifying the Database
You can verify your Centralis PrintHere Database to ensure that your configuration does not contain errors. To access this function, choose Verify Database... from the Maintenance menu. All errors found are displayed in the Error Details pane. Errors are displayed as followed:
- Type - This is the type of information which contains the error. For example, an invalid printer would appear as Type 'Printer'.
- Item - The identifying value of the item which contains the error. For example, an invalid printer would have its URI displayed here.
- Error Description - A description of the error which was found.
- Go to item... By selecting an error in the list and clicking Go to item... you can view and edit that item in order to correct it.
Centralis PrintHere is configured using the following files which should be located in the same network data store directory with read only rights for users and modify rights for administrators:
This is the application configuration file containing the Preferences settings.
This file contains the mapping rules for determining a Clients location based on either the Client Name or the IP Address. The application scans down the list of matches until it finds the first match and the order of the matches is therefore important. Generalised matches should be placed at the end and more specific matches placed at the beginning. Once a match is found then a list of Printer groups is determined.
This file contains the iPrint printers in specified Printer Groups. All printers are retrieved from the groups determined from the location match and are created for the user within their session.
Location Pattern Matching
In the Location Identifiers you can specify the complete value (for example, "MARKETING_PC1"), or you can use wildcard characters to find a range of values (for example, "MARKETING_*").
The following table shows how you can use different patterns:
|Kind of match||Pattern||Match||No match|
|Multiple characters||a*a||aa, aBa, aBBBa||aBC|
|*ab*||abc, AABB, Xab||aZb, bac|
|Multiple characters||ab*||abcdefg, abc||cab, aab|
|Single character||a?a||aaa, a3a, aBa||aBBBa|
|Single digit||a#a||a0a, a1a, a2a||aaa, a10a|
|Range of characters||[a-z]||f, p, j||2, &|
|Outside a range||[!a-z]||9, &, %||b, a|
|Not a digit||[!0-9]||A, a, &, ~||0, 1, 9|
|Combined||a[!b-m]#||An9, az0, a99||abc, aj0|
How the Initial Default Printer is Determined
The default printer set for a user when they logon is determined by the following rules, which are followed in sequence until one is met:
- If the user has selected a default printer for their current Location (and that printer is still valid), this will be the default printer.
- If there is already another default printer (e.g. one not managed using iPrint) this will be used unless:
- this printer is removed by Centralis PrintHere as being a printer from another location
- the option to "Ignore Non-iPrint Default Printers" has been set in the Preferences
- Otherwise the default printer will be set to the first printer in the first Printer Group for the user's current Location
In the Centralis PrintHere Log (if used), when the default printer is set you will see one of the following entries: Printer?, Printer? or Printer? (the number corresponds to the rule above which resulted in that printer being selected).
For a printer to be saved as a location default in the user configuration file the Centralis PrintHere application must be used with the /Manager command line option or by selecting the "Force Default Printer Selection" in the Preferences option. Setting the default via any other method e.g. Windows Printers dialog, will only change it for the current session.
The default printer does not have to be an iPrint printer if for example a PC at a certain location has a locally attached printer then this can be selected as the default for this location.
Client Command Line Options
The Client Command Line Options allow the administrator to run Centralis PrintHere using specified variables for troubleshooting and diagnostic purposes. It can also be used to allow user access to the Centralis PrintHere client Print Manager.
The command line options are:
- Print Manager Mode (/Manager) - When this option is specified the application displays a Print Manager window that contains a list of the current printers. This option is intended as replacement for giving users access to the native Printers folder and is locked down to prevent the deletion or addition of printers. The user can use the Print Manager window to achieve the following tasks:
- Default Printer Selection The user can select the default printer they require from the list of available printers. When the Print Manager is closed the selected default printer is saved to the users configuration file as the default printer for the current location and will, in future, automatically be set as the default printer each time the user logs in from the same location.
- Open Printer
This option opens an additional dialog displaying the print queue for the selected printer. The user, from this dialog, can:
- View the current print jobs
- Pause the printer
- Cancel print jobs
- Move jobs up and down the queue (note some options will only succeed if the user has the required rights).
- You have disconnected a session at one location and reconnected from another and wish to update your printers with the correct ones for the new location.
- You believe that the current printer installations may be corrupt or working incorrectly.
Troubleshooting / File Logging
Centralis PrintHere allows the administrator to switch on File Logging. This records the results of Centralis PrintHere's operations and actions to a log file for diagnostic purposes. Log Files will be created for every user and are normally small, text based files. The File Logging options are accessed via the Preferences tab on the main menu, and the following options are available:
- Display Log - This option determines whether the Centralis PrintHere client should display a log of the actions taken by the application. This is primarily for troubleshooting purposes.
- Save Log - This option determines whether the Centralis PrintHere client should save a log of the actions taken by the application. This is primarily for troubleshooting purposes.
- Log File - This is the file and file path that the Log should be written to if the Save Log option is selected, normally in the user's data area. Note that environment variables can be used and that a central store of log files can be created, e.g. using a filename based on the computer name variable.
- Append to Log - If this option is turned on, the Log File specified will be appended to rather than being overwritten. Note that over time this will increase the size of the Log files.
User Specific Configuration
Note also that Centralis PrintHere is based on a global standard configuration file. Configuration files created for individual users or groups of users will therefore not take effect unless the option to "Allow User Overrides" is enabled. If you are using logging or undertaking other troubleshooting tasks you may wish to create and use specific User Configuration files.
User Configuration Wizard The User Configuration Wizard will create a Centralis PrintHere Configuration File which can be distributed to one or more users. To launch the wizard, choose User Configuration File Wizard from the Tools menu.
The new User Configuration File can be
- Blank (all settings and need to be specified)
- Obtained from Centralis PrintHere Manager (Settings are based on those specified in the Preferences tab of Centralis PrintHere Manager)
- Obtained from an existing Configuration File (Settings are based on those in an existing specified printhere.ini file)
Overriding Global Settings
Under some circumstances you may wish to override the settings for individual users for troubleshooting purposes or to meet particular operational requirements. This is done by enabling "Allow User Overrides" in the Preferences Menu. This option determines whether the Centralis PrintHere client application should attempt to read user configuration files. If set to "On" this will allow a user's configuration settings to override those in the system wide Centralis PrintHere configuration file.
Note that this is a Global Setting which, if enabled, will affect any user who has non-standard settings in their user configuration file.
As an example, the override can be applied for the following reasons:
- Override "Remove Additional Printers" - If a user only moves between two locations it may be quicker to allow all the printers for both locations to exist.
- File Logging - If you wish to test different settings, it is possible to create a new User Configuration File using the Wizard, issue it to a test user, Allow User Overrides then log the results.
Installation to Citrix MetaFrame Environments
Centralis PrintHere is particularly suited to Citrix MetaFrame deployment, as it is able to interpret the Location Identifiers provided by the user's client device, rather than the server they are running a Citrix MetaFrame session on.
To install Centralis PrintHere into a Citrix MetaFrame server environment you should:
- Ensure you have administration privileges and that the iPrint client is already deployed on the Citrix MetaFrame servers.
- Put the Citrix MetaFrame server into "Install" mode
- Run Setup.exe and install the manager database into an area which can be read by users as per the standard install
The Centralis PrintHere Client can be installed to the client devices, the Citrix MetaFrame servers or both. If the Client is installed onto the Citrix MetaFrame servers it will provide location-based printing based on the location match for the client device.
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