Using openSSH to Securely Access Remote Systems
Novell Cool Solutions: Feature
By Kirk Coombs
Digg This -
Posted: 21 Jun 2005
Using openSSH to Securely Access Remote Systems
Novell Linux Desktop
Open Enterprise Server
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
SUSE Linux Professional
What is openSSH?
If you are new to Linux, you may not be familiar with Secure Shell (SSH). SSH provides a secure method to access a remote host in the styles of telnet, rlogin, ftp, and others. With SSH, all communication between host and client computers is encrypted, reducing the risk of having passwords or data intercepted.
SSH in SUSE Linux is provided via the openSSH package, which is installed by default on all Novell/SUSE products. openSSH provides a daemon, sshd, as well as three clients: ssh, sftp, and scp. The ssh client works much like telnet and rlogin---it allows for remote login and execution of commands on a host system. The sftp client is functionally similar to most command-line FTP clients. Lastly, scp allows files to be copied to and from a remote host by using syntax similar to the cp command.
openSSH should be installed and active by default on most Novell/SUSE Linux systems. The exception is SUSE Professional 9.3, where, for added security, the SSH daemon is disabled by default with SUSEfirewall2. You can enable the SSH daemon in two ways: during system installation or by editing the firewall settings later. Enabling SSH during system installation is done in the “Network Configuration” screen. Click on “disabled” to toggle SSH to “enabled” as shown in Figure 1. To modify the firewall settings later, enter the Security and Users>Firewall module in YaST and enable SSH under Allowed Services as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 1: Enabling SSH Server During Installation
Figure 2: Enabling SSH Server After Installation
If you did a custom install and openSSH was not included, install it by performing the following steps:
Install the openSSH package in YaST. If you only want the clients (ssh, sftp, and scp), you can stop here.
If you want a SSH daemon, enable the service by using the System Services (Runlevel) module in YaST, or type the following as root:
# insserv /etc/init.d/sshd; rcsshd start
Ensure that the SUSEfirewall2 allows SSH connections as shown above.
In order to implement encryption, each computer running the SSH daemon must be uniquely identified. This is accomplished with RSA keys. When the sshd daemon is started for the first time it generates a random key pair to identify the host. The key pair is stored in /etc/ssh/. This key has a public and private component. Together they allow data to be encrypted and decrypted. When connecting to a host for the first time, the host's public key is given to the client computer. SSH issues a message similar to the following:
The authenticity of host 'computer.site (220.127.116.11)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 3f:20:b2:bb:d1:74:c3:35:f8:2e:99:e5:74:56:12:4c.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Typing yes causes the hosts public key to be placed in ~/.ssh/known_hosts on the client. The next time the client connects, the key is read from this file and the message is not displayed. Because the client now has the public key for the host, encrypted communication is now possible.
If the public key for the host changes (i.e. if a new key is generated or if the system is re-installed), SSH will issue a message stating that the key has changed, which may be a sign of a security breach, and will not let you connect. If you are certain everything is all right, simply remove the old key from ~/.ssh/known_hosts on the client and try again.
The openSSH clients
The openSSH clients are very flexible and have many options. For basic usage, however, they are relatively simple.
The ssh client has the following general syntax:
ssh [options] [user@]hostname
For example, to login to host 18.104.22.168 as user jdoe, type:
This can be simplified further. SSH automatically uses the user name of the current user on the client if none is specified. This applies to all the openSSH clients. For example, if the user is logged in as jdoe on the client, and wishes to log in as jdoe on the host the command is:
If the key authentication goes successfully, you are prompted to enter your password and are then presented with a console-login to the remote server (see Figure 3). To close the connection, simply type 'exit.'
Figure 3: Sample ssh Session
ssh has two important flags to remember: -X and -C. Using -X opens an x-tunnel with the host. If an x-based application is launched on the host, it appears on the client computer. The -C option causes all communication to be compressed with the gzip algorithm. This increases the processor load of both the client and host, but speeds communication. For example:
ssh -XC email@example.com
The sftp client works much like any other command-line FTP client. It has the basic syntax:
sftp [options] [user@]hostname
Once connected, use the standard get, put, etc. used with ftp. To exit your session, type exit. Figure 4 shows a sample sftp session.
Figure 4: Sample sftp Session
The scp client allows for seamlessly copying files between a client and a host computer. scp resembles the cp command in many ways. Its general syntax is:
scp [options] [[user@]host1:]file1 [...] [[user@]host2:]file2
For example, to copy the file foo from the home directory of the client user to the root directory of the host execute:
scp ~/foo root@foo:/root/
or to do the opposite:
scp root@foo:/root/foo ~/
scp also takes the options -r and -v for recursive and verbose operation. For example, to copy the contents of /tmp/files on the host to /home/jdoe/files on the client, and display all debugging information, type:
scp -rv firstname.lastname@example.org:/tmp/files/* /home/jdoe/files/
Configuring password-less Connections
Warning: The steps described in this section introduce security risks.
At times it is desirable to establish connections between two computers that do not require a password. With SSH, these connections are possible.
To establish password-less connections, one simply needs to notify the host that their computer is a trusted client. This is done by generating a public/private key pair on the client, and then giving the public key to the host.
To do this, perform the following steps:
On the client computer, generate a public/private key. Type the following as the user you intend to connect from:
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 1024
You are prompted for a location to save the key to. Press enter to accept the default location (~/.ssh/id_rsa).
You are prompted for a passphrase. Press enter twice for none.
Your private key is saved to ~/.ssh/id_rsa, and your public key is saved to ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
Type the following to copy your public key to the host computer:
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub user@hostcomputer
You are prompted for a password, the client's public key is copied to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the host. You are then logged out.
You can add the client's public key to any user you wish on the host. The current user on the client can then connect as any user on the host which has this public key.
Now, ssh into the host computer again. You are immediately be presented with the command prompt, without being prompted for a password. If your client's key is ever changed, you will need to replace the old public key in .ssh/authorized_keys on the host with new key from the client.
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