An Introduction to LDAP: Part 2-Using LDAP to Create a User Authentication and File Server for Linux and Windows Clients
Novell Cool Solutions: Feature
By Kirk Coombs
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Posted: 22 Jun 2005
An Introduction to LDAP: Part 2—Using LDAP to Create a User Authentication and File Server for Linux and Windows Clients
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
This is the second article in a two-article series that explains LDAP directories and their usage. Part 1 is a simple primer, intended to bring users who have no experience with LDAP up to speed with the basics. Readers who have no experience with LDAP should read Part 1 prior to proceeding.
What this article covers
This article provides a practical example of how to utilize LDAP in a multi-platform, multi-user environment. It explains how to use a SLES server, hosting a LDAP directory, to create a unified login source and file server for both Windows and Linux. On the Linux side, users authenticate directly with LDAP, and access their home directories via NFS. On the Windows side, Samba is configured in conjunction with LDAP to act as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC), serving user credentials and providing roaming profiles. In addition, user information stored in the directory, such as e-mail addresses and phone numbers, is made available as address books to clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird. Figure 1 outlines the configuration.
Figure 1: The configuration
The article walks through the installation and configuration of a SLES 9 server that provides these services. A SLES server that has already been installed can easily be adapted as well. Doing so is not covered in-depth in this article, but pointers are given that indicate how it can be accomplished.
What is required
To accomplish the tasks in this article, the following hardware and software is required:
A server on which SUSE Linux Enterprise Server can be installed. This server should either have a static IP address, or be reachable via DNS. It should also contain enough hard-disk space to provide storage for the users whose home directories are hosted on the server.
One or more Linux clients. This article describes Novell Linux Desktop.
One or more Windows clients. This article describes Windows XP.
These computers should all be networked and the clients should all be able to reach the server.
Configuring the SLES 9 server
This article continues the example given in Part 1. In Part 1, LDAP is introduced through a company called example.com, which has three departments: Sales, Marketing, and Engineering. Each department has one or more employees.
Install the base SLES system
Begin by installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9. No special installation settings are required, although it may be desirable to make a separate partition for the user home directories. If the number of users to be served is unknown and may grow significantly, it may be desirable to use EVMS or LVM to create volumes that are expandable in the future. Use the default package selections and begin the install. For more information on how to perform a SLES install or use EVMS and LVM, see the SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server Administration and Installation Guide.
Once the packages have been installed and the system has been rebooted, the root password is prompted for. Select a root password and continue. Next, a Network Configuration module is displayed. Be sure to configure the networking to use a static IP address so the server can be reached by the clients at all times. It is also good to configure the server with a unique host name. In this example, the server is configured with the static IP address 18.104.22.168, and the host name ldapserver. In addition, the server is configured with the example.com domain. The configuration is shown in Figures 1 and 2. When completed, continue through the network connection test and updates.
Figure 2: Network configuration: static IP address
Figure 3: Network configuration: host name and domain name
The next module is the Service Configuration module. This module configures certificates and the LDAP server. Unless there are any special situations, the default settings should be accepted. This creates an LDAP server with the following settings:
Base DN: dc=example,dc=com
LDAP password is the same as the root password
Continue to the next module, which configures the primary source of user authentication. Accept the default selection (LDAP). This causes the LDAP Client module to be launched next, which is where the server which was just installed is configured as the user authentication source for this machine. Notice that the server base DN is already filled in. Select Advanced Configuration. Notice again that the information for the LDAP server is already filled in. One key setting to note is the File Server check box, which should be selected, indicating that all user files are stored locally on this machine.
Now, it is important to consider the configuration of the LDAP users. On Linux, each user is given a unique user id (UID). On most systems, system users, such as root and ftp, have UID's lower than 1000, with the first real user being 1000. Because LDAP users may be authenticated on any arbitrary Linux client, it is important that the UID's of the LDAP users do not conflict with the UID's of any local users on the clients. Thus, it is best to set the UID's for LDAP users to begin at a number which will not conflict, such as 10,000. In addition, users belong to one or more group, each with its own GID. It is important the the GID's do not conflict either.
If the defaults are accepted, then UID's begin at 1000 and GID's begin at 1000. De-select the Create Default Configuration Objects check box, and select Configure User Management Settings. A prompt asks whether to place configuration objects in the directory, select yes. Next, add new configuration objects to the directory. First, add a new group configuration object by selecting new. Enter groupconfiguration as the name and select ok (see Figure 4). The group configuration options are then displayed. Notice that the first GID is 1000. Most systems begin with 100, so this setting is fine. Select new then add a new user configuration object, calling it userconfiguration. When its options are displayed, notice that the UID's begin with 1000. Change suseminuniqueid and susenextuniqueid to 10000. See Figure 5.
Figure 4: Adding a new group configuration object
Figure 5: Changing the UID settings
Select Next several times to proceed to the next module.
It is now time to add a user. Begin be adding a LDAP user to serve as administrative user for this server. This example uses the user admin user, with the user name admin. Fill in the fields, then select Details. Notice that the UID for admin is 10000, as desired.
Next, consider the user's home directories. By default, Linux systems place home directories at /home/username. Because any arbitrary client can connect, there is no guarantee that user names will not conflict with local users on the clients. It is simpler to place the home directories of the LDAP users in another location, such as /users. Change the home directory for the admin user to this location (see Figure 6).
Figure 6: User detail settings
Also notice that the admin user is not a member of any group. No LDAP groups exist yet, so admin cannot be assigned to any. In this case, admin will default to the local users (GID=100) group when logging-in.
Then next screen provides the option to configure additional modules. For example, launch the Edit Remaining Attributes of LDAP User module. There are many different attributes to define for the user, such as an e-mail address and phone number. Fill in any desired information (see Figure 7). This information later drives the LDAP address book.
Figure 7: Additional LDAP settings
Continue through the rest of the install. After the install is finished, log-in as the new LDAP user. Now is a good time to look at what has happened. Open a terminal, and bring up the entire contents of the directory by entering: ldapsearch -x -b dc=example,dc=com. Results similar to the following are displayed:
# extended LDIF # # LDAPv3 # base <dc=example,dc=com> with scope sub # filter: (objectclass=*) # requesting: ALL # # example.com dn: dc=example,dc=com dc: example o: example objectClass: organization objectClass: dcObject # ldapconfig, example.com dn: ou=ldapconfig,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: organizationalUnit ou: ldapconfig # groupconfiguration, ldapconfig, example.com dn: cn=groupconfiguration,ou=ldapconfig,dc=example,dc=com cn: groupconfiguration objectClass: top objectClass: suseModuleConfiguration objectClass: suseGroupConfiguration suseDefaultBase: ou=group,dc=example,dc=com suseDefaultTemplate: cn=grouptemplate,ou=ldapconfig,dc=example,dc=com suseMaxUniqueId: 60000 suseMinUniqueId: 1000 suseNextUniqueId: 1000 suseSearchFilter: objectclass=posixgroup # userconfiguration, ldapconfig, example.com dn: cn=userconfiguration,ou=ldapconfig,dc=example,dc=com cn: userconfiguration objectClass: top objectClass: suseModuleConfiguration objectClass: suseUserConfiguration suseDefaultBase: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com suseDefaultTemplate: cn=usertemplate,ou=ldapconfig,dc=example,dc=com suseMaxPasswordLength: 8 suseMaxUniqueId: 60000 suseMinPasswordLength: 5 suseMinUniqueId: 10000 suseNextUniqueId: 10000 susePasswordHash: CRYPT suseSearchFilter: objectclass=posixaccount suseSkelDir: /etc/skel # people, example.com dn: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: organizationalUnit ou: people # group, example.com dn: ou=group,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: organizationalUnit ou: group # admin, people, example.com dn: uid=admin,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com businessCategory: Administrator cn: Geeko Novell employeeNumber: 1 gidNumber: 100 givenName: admin homeDirectory: /users/admin initials: AU loginShell: /bin/bash mail: firstname.lastname@example.org objectClass: top objectClass: posixAccount objectClass: shadowAccount objectClass: inetOrgPerson shadowInactive: -1 shadowLastChange: 12951 shadowMax: 99999 shadowMin: 0 shadowWarning: 7 sn: user uid: admin uidNumber: 10000 # search result search: 2 result: 0 Success # numResponses: 8 # numEntries: 7
Notice that the directory contains:
The base DN (dn: dc=example,dc=com).
A ldapconfig organizational unit (dn: ou=ldapconfig,dc=example,dc=com).
The user and group configuration objects (userconfiguration and groupconfiguration).
Organizational units in which people and groups are stored (dn: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com and dn: ou=group,dc=example,dc=com).
One user in the people organizational unit (dn: uid=admin,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com).
At this point, three major YaST modules have been used to build the directory:
Network Services > LDAP Server was used to create the directory and set-up the base DN (dc=example,dc=com).
Network Services > LDAP Client was used to configure the system to authenticate against LDAP users. It also added the ldapconfig organizational unit, and was used to create the userconfiguration and groupconfiguration objects.
Security and Users > Edit and Create Users was used to add the people and group objects, as well as add the admin user.
With this knowledge, it is easy to see how to configure a system that has already been installed so that it hosts LDAP users; simply use the modules given above to configure the system to have a similar directory. By default, SLES is already installed with a directory (usually dc=site, if no domain was configured in the network settings) containing LDAP users. Just add a new directory or change the current directory so that all new users have a UID of 10,000 or higher, then place the home directories of new users in a location other than /home.
Now that the base system is installed, the following configuration is performed:
If the server is to be used to authenticate Windows users, it must be configured as a PDC.
If the server is to be used to authenticate Linux users, a NFS share must be created to share the home directories.
The users and groups must be added and configured.
Configure as a PDC
Configuration of a PDC is a relatively simple task. Start by opening the Samba Server YaST module by selecting Network Services > Samba Server. A pop up may appear stating that additional packages may need to be installed. Select Continue to install them. Begin by entering a workgroup name, such as EXAMPLE. Next, indicate that this server should act as a Primary Domain Controller. The next screen has several configuration tabs:
On the Start Up tab select On to enable the Samba server on boot.
On the Shares tab change the users share to point to the new home directory path, such as /users.
On the Identity tab do the following (see Figure 8 for a summary of all settings on this tab):
Give the server a NetBIOS Host Name such as ldapserver.
Indicate that this sever should have WINS support.
Select Advanced Settings > User Authentication Sources. Add LDAP as a source then move it to the top of the list (see Figure 9).
Select Advanced Settings > LDAP Settings. Set the LDAP administrator password so Samba can communicate with LDAP. LDAP should be configured to use the root password, so enter this.
Select Finish. The settings are written, and a prompt requests the LDAP password. This seems redundant because it was already set in the previous step. The step was necessary or the next step, setting the Samba root password, fails.
Figure 8: Settings on the identity tab
Figure 9: LDAP as an information source
Now, perform another ldapsearch. Notice that there are several additional Samba entries in the directory. This module did the following:
Started the Samba server and configured it as a PDC.
Linked Samba with LDAP so that LDAP users can be authenticated through Samba.
Established several Samba shares, including a share for user home directories.
Configure a NFS share
Linux workstations are capable of authenticating users directly via LDAP. However, a share must be created to allow the client workstations to mount the user home directories. The easiest way to do this is with NFS.
Begin by starting the NFS Sever module in YaST by selecting Network Services > NFS Server. Select Start NFS Server and proceed to the next screen. Here, NFS shares are added. Select Add Directory to create a new share. Enter the directory that the user's home directories are stored in, such as /users. A pop up allows for the configuration of hosts that can mount this share, and options for the share. This NFS share will not be password-protected so it is best to restrict the hosts to only those within a specified IP address range. See the exports(5) man page for more information on how to do this. This share also needs read/write access, so change ro to rw. Figure 10 shows a summary of the NFS share settings.
Figure 10: Configure the NFS share
There are two ways that the client computers may mount the home directories. The first, and easiest, is to simply add this share to the /etc/fstab file on each client and have the entire /users directory mounted on each client. If this method is chosen, configuration on the sever stops here.
The second method is to configure automount to automatically mount only the home directory of a particular user as they log-in. This is much more elegant and secure, but requires more work on the server. This work involves creating automount objects in the directory, and adding users to these objects.
For example, to add the admin user to the directory, the following entries are required:
#First, create objects to define the automount directories. These need only be created once.
nisMapEntry: ldap 22.214.171.124:nisMapname=auto.users,dc=example,dc=com
#Then, add an entry for each user. As new users are added, new entries are required. For
#subsequent users, remember to change the user name in 4 places.
nisMapEntry: -fstype=nfs,hard,intr,nodev,nosuid 126.96.36.199:/users/admin
Save these entries to a file, such as nfs.ldif. Enter the information into the directory with the following command:
ldapadd -x -D cn=Administrator,dc=example,dc=com -W -f nfs.ldif
Add and configure users and groups
Now, it is time to add additional LDAP users and groups. To do so, enter YaST then select Security and Users > Edit and Create Users (or Groups). Notice that the LDAP password is prompted for. Also notice, in the upper right, that custom filter is selected. To filter only local users or only LDAP users, use the Set Filter button on the lower right.
In Part 1 of this article, example.com has three departments and five employees. A good configuration could have three groups for each department, and then place employees to these groups. First, add a group. Make sure the Groups radio button is selected in the upper left, then select Add. Enter a group name, such as Sales. Notice that existing users can be added to a group as it is created. Select Next. Here, additional LDAP and Samba plug-ins are added. For Samba to recognize this group, highlight Manage samba group parameters and select Add or Remove Plug-In. A fuzzy box appears on the left, indicating it is added (see Figure 11). Use this same process to add other groups, such as Marketing and Engineering.
Figure 11: Adding a Samba group
When all the groups exist, add some users. Make sure that the Users radio button is selected on the top left and select Add. Enter the user information just as the main admin user was added. In Details, remember to change the home directory to the proper path, such as /users, and select the group this person belongs to (see Figure 12).
Figure 12: Detail Settings
Again, the next screen allows for configuration of the LDAP and Samba plug-ins. Launch the LDAP plug-in and add an e-mail address, phone numbers, etc. Then, add the Samba plug-in, and launch it. In order to to have the user's home directory mapped in Windows and enable a roaming profile, enter the Home Drive and Home Path as shown in Figure 13. The home directory is mapped as U:, and the roaming profile is saved in /user/jdoe/.
Figure 13: Samba configuration
Add any additional users. If the clients are to use the automounter to mount home folders, remember to manually add their automount entry to the directory. For example, this user would need:
nisMapEntry: -fstype=nfs,hard,intr,nodev,nosuid 188.8.131.52:/users/jdoe
When completed, it is time to configure the clients.
Configuring a Linux Client
Configuration of Linux clients is simple. This example demonstrates Novell Linux Desktop, although the method is similar for any Novell/SUSE product.
First launch the YaST LDAP Client module by selecting Network Services > LDAP Client. The module may prompt to install some additional packages—--do so. Select Use LDAP, and enter the directory's base DN and sever IP address or DNS name. If the server is configured to use automount, select Start Automounter (see Figure 14).
Figure 14: LDAP client configuration 1
Select Advanced Configuration. Enter the base DN for the LDAP configuration and Administrator user (see Figure 15).
Figure 15: LDAP client configuration 2
Select Next until the module saves the changes. If the server was configured for automount, and the client has Start Automounter checked, LDAP users should now be able to log-in.
If a simple NFS share is desired, open YaST and enter the Network Services > NFS Client module. Add the NFS server, making sure that the local mount point is the same as the path to the home folders on the server. See Figure 16. This adds the share to /etc/fstab, which mounts it on boot. When the share is added, the users should be able to log-in.
Figure 16: Adding a NFS server
Configuring a Windows Client
Windows clients are configured by configuring the SLES server as a PDC. Users then select this PDC when logging-in. To establish the SLES server as a PDC on Windows XP, right-click on My Computer and select Properties. Select the Computer Name tab. Select Change. Give the computer a name, then enter select the Domain radio button. Enter the domain that was configured in the Samba server settings, EXAMPLE in this case (see Figure 17). Select ok. A password prompt appears. Enter the user root and the Samba root password. Restart Windows for the changes to take effect.
Figure 17: Windows Domain Configuration
Upon restarting, select the EXAMPLE domain instead of the local machine, and log-in. Notice that the Linux home directory is mapped as U:. Open U: and change the folder settings to show hidden files and folders. Notice that in addition to all the Linux files, there is a .msprofile directory. Within it is everything that would be saved at C:\Documents and Settings\username\. This information is written when logging out of Windows. Thus, any Windows workstation that this user logs into has the same desktop settings.
Configuring a LDAP address book
Most mail clients offer the option of configuring a LDAP server as a source for address book information. The LDAP configuration that has just been completed supports this. This example demonstrates Mozilla Thunderbird, but the process is similar for most clients.
In Thunderbird, configure a regular mail account. Then, select Edit > Account Settings. In the left navigation, select Composition & Addressing, then select Use a different LDAP server and select Edit Directories. See Figure 18.
Figure 18: Thunderbird LDAP settings
Next, enter the LDAP server information. See Figure 19 for an example. Notice that the base DN points to the people branch.
Figure 19: LDAP server settings
Now, a search in the address book returns results from the LDAP directory, as shown in Figure 20.
Figure 20: Search results
Where to go from here
The configuration described in this article is very basic, and can be expanded upon to create a highly customized environment. In particular, the Samba components are very customizable and can provide greater interoperability with Windows. Other ideas include hosting users and files on different computers, implementing quotas on user's home directories, and expanding the schema of the LDAP directory to allow for greater flexibility of stored information.
openLDAP Everywhere, http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6266
Fighting the FUD - Deploying Novell's Linux Server in a Windows Domain Environment, http://www.flexbeta.net/main/articles.php?action=show&id=88
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration and Installation Guide, http://www.novell.com/documentation/sles9/pdfdoc/sles_9_admin_guide/sles_9_admin_guide.pdf
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