7.14 Managing NFS Server

This section discusses the following topics:

7.14.1 Starting and Stopping NFS Server

To start NFS Server: At the system console, enter

load xnfs

To stop NFS Server: At the system console, enter

unload xnfs

7.14.2 NFS Server Load Time Options

Load Time Option

Description

-Umask octalvalue

Umask refers to the file mode creation mask for default UNIX permissions. The default value = 022.

Enter octal digits in the value range 000 to 777.

Manually add -umask to the nfsstart.ncf for permanant changes.

-nodnscheck

Allows the IP addresses whose DNS name is not resolved in the export list. By default, it checks for the DNS resolution for the IP addresses. Manually add -nodnscheck to the nfsstart.ncf for permanant changes.

This option weakens the security when identifying trusted hosts by their hosts names.

When using this load time option, make sure that::

Either only IP addresses / IP ranges are used to identify trusted hosts

Or

Use this option during testing phases when secure systems and data are not involved, and ease of testing is required. For example, not all test system names and addresses are resolvable in DNS, hosts files.

7.14.3 NFS Server Console Commands

The following table lists the NFS Server console parameters and their description.

Command

Description

?

Lists xnfs load time options

SHARE

Lists all shared paths

SHARE refresh

Refreshes the share list from exports file

SHARE /path ExportOptions

Shares a path dynamically

UNSHARE /path

Unshares a path shared using SHARE

MOUNT {stats}

Displays MOUNT protocol statistics

NFS {info|stats}

Displays NFS protocol info or statistics

LOCKD {info|stats}

Displays LOCK protocol info or statistics

TRACE {on|off|clr}

Turns on, turns off, or clears the NFS Trace screen

nodnscheck

Allows the IP addresses of those whose DNS name is not resolved, in the export list. By default, does will not allow as it was.Manually add -nodnscheck to the nfsstart.ncf for permanant changes.

This option weakens the security when identifying trusted hosts by their hosts names. Therefore, when using this load time option, make sure that either only IP addresses / IP ranges should be used to identify trusted hosts or during testing phases when secure systems and data are not involved, and ease of testing is required. Because not all test system names and addresses are resolvable in DNS, hosts files.

7.14.4 Export Options

The NFS Server uses the exports file located in sys:\etc. The export file lets you export a path and specify export options and trusted hosts for the exported path.

You can upgrade the export files existing in NetWare 5.1 and NetWare 6 by executing the upgrade utility, as specified in Upgrading Export Files from NetWare 5.1 / NetWare 6 .

The syntax for exporting a pathname is

/volumename[/dir1[/dir2...]] [/[-anon][-deny][-nwmode][-ro|-rw][-root] 

Pathname Export Guidelines

  • Always prefix the pathname with a slash (/). For example, /nssvol.
  • The pathname can have up to 256 characters. It cannot be blank.
  • Do not use an exclamation mark (!) in the pathname because it indicates a disabled path, and will not be exported.
  • When exporting a path, the volume name is not case sensitive. However, any directory names in the path should exactly match the directory names that exist in the NFS (UNIX) name space.

    To view the name as it displays in the NFS (UNIX) name space, use NWAdmin, browse to the volume and to the folder, then select Details. You can view the name of the folder as it exists in every name space in the details.

    Alternately, on the Server Console, enter the following to get the UNIX namespace information:

    xnfs getinfo /volumename[/dir1[/dir2...]]

  • When you do not specify any option, the export is not a valid one and the path will not be exported. It is mandatory to provide options.
  • Use iManager or other Language (i18N) enabled editors to export paths in languages other than English.
  • For more information on using the export options, see Export Option Examples , and Export Options Usage Guidelines.

Updating the Exports List

To update the exports list after manually modifying the exports file, execute the following command on the server console:

xnfs mount refresh

Alternately, unload and reload xnfs.nlm.

The following table explains the various export options:

IMPORTANT:In the table, the term host refers to the IP address or the DNS name of the server.

Export Option

Description

-anon

Exports the pathname with rights for anonymous user access to the file system, based on Others' permissions.

WARNING:Do not use this option when root access is given to all the clients.

-anon= host[:host]...

Exports the pathname with rights for anonymous user access only for the listed clients.

-deny

Denies the host all permissions so that the host cannot even mount. The host is added to the exports file with -deny token.

When this is specified, all other access is disabled.

-nwmode

Indicates if a particular path is exported in NetWare mode or not.

If -nwmode is specified, the path is treated as being exported in NetWare mode.

If it is not specified, it is treated as an Independent mode export.

-ro = host[:host]

Exports the pathname with read-only rights only to the listed clients. The listed clients do not have root access.

-root

Exports the pathname with root access rights to all the clients.

-root = host[:host]...

Exports the pathname with root access rights only to the listed clients.

No other clients have root access unless you specify the corresponding -ro or -rw options.

-rw

Exports the pathname with the read-write rights to all the clients.

-rw = host[:host]...

Exports the pathname with read-write rights only to the listed clients.The listed clients do not have root access.

Export Option Examples

Here are a few examples of using the export options:

In the example, nssvol is the NSS volume name and dir1, dir2, dir3 and dir4 are directories under nssvol that are exported using NFS Server with varying export options.

  • To export the pathname with read-only rights without root and anonymous access (default):
    /nssvol/dir1 -ro
    
  • To export the pathname with read-write and root access to all clients:
    /nssvol/dir2 -rw -root
    
  • To export the pathname with read-only and root access to all clients:
    /nssvol/dir1 -ro -root
    
  • To export the pathname with read-only to host1 and read-write and root access to host2:
    /nssvol/dir2 -ro=host1 -rw=host2 -root=host2
    
  • To export the pathname with read-write access to all clients and enable anonymous access only for host6 and host7:
    /nssvol/dir3 -rw -anon=host6:host7
    
  • To export the pathname with read-write and root access to host1 and host3, only read-write access to host2, read-only root access to host4, and anonymous access for all clients:
    /nssvol/dir4 -rw=host1:host2:host3 -ro=host4 -root=host1:host3:host4 -anon
    

Export Options Usage Guidelines

  • Prefix all options with a hyphen (-). Do not put a space between the hyphen (-) and the first letter of the options.

    For example: - ro is incorrect, but -ro is correct.

  • Do not use double quotes (" ") to separate the options.
  • Use the colon (:) to separate multiple hosts when specifying the same option for the hosts.

    For example, to give read-only access to host1 and host2, use the following format:

    /nssvol -ro=host1:host2
    

    The following is incorrect:

    /nssvol -ro=host1 -ro-host2
    
  • Do not specify the same option globally as well as for a client.

    For example, the following syntax is incorrect:

    /nssvol -ro -ro=host1
    
  • When you specify the -ro, -rw, -root or -anon options for individual clients, these options override the global permissions for that client.

    For example, in

    /nssvol -ro -rw=host1
    

    host1 has read-write access even though other clients continue to have the global permission of read-only, and in

    /nssvol -rw -ro=host1
    

    host1 has read-only access even though other clients continue to have the global permissions of read-write.

  • When you repeat the same entries with multiple options, then the later option overrides the previous option.

    For example, in

    /nssvol -ro=host1 -rw=host1
    

    host1 has read-write access.

  • When you export a parent directory, the client can also mount the subdirectories. However, both the parent directory and subdirectory cannot be exported at the same time. When a subdirectory is already exported, you cannot export the parent directory and vice-versa.

    For example, when the exports file has the following two entries

    /nssvol/dir1 -rw=host1 -root=host4:host5
    
    /nssvol -rw -root
    

    then you cannot export /nssvol (the parent directory) because /nssvol/dir1, (the subdirectory) is already exported.

For more information on NFS Server, see Section 7.4, NFS Server.

7.14.5 Managing NFS Server Using iManager

You can perform the following administrative tasks using the iManager:

Meet the following requirements for NFS Server Administration gadget to be installed in iManager.

  • The Apache Web Server is selected during NetWare 6.5 install.
  • iManager 2.5 is selected during the NetWare 6.5 install.

    For more information about installing iManager 2.5, refer to the Installing Novell iManager section in the Novell iManager 2.5 Installation Guide.

7.14.6 Administering NFS Server

  1. In iManager, click File Protocols > NFS Server to view the NFS Services Administration page.

    Figure 7-10 NFS Services Administration Page

  2. Click the Object selector to select the server on which you have to administer the NFS Server.

  3. Starting / Stopping NFS Services: Click Stop or Start as required.

    The Stop button displays when the NFS Server is running. The Start button displays when the NFS Server is not running.

  4. NFS Server Management: Specify the umask value and click Update. Enter octal digits in the value range 000 to 777.

    The default value = 022. Umask refers to the file mode creation mask for default UNIX permissions.

  5. Exported Paths: Displays all valid enabled and disabled exported paths in the exports file located at sys:\etc.

    Command-line shared entries, prefixed with (Shared) are also displayed. These entries are typically exported cluster enabled paths in Active/Active cluster configuration and correspond to the command line share entries present in the load script of cluster resources.These entries cannot be modified. If you stop and start NFS Server either from user interface or the Server console, then the shared entries are not available. Share them afresh using the command line.

    elect an exported path in the Exported Paths list to perform operations such as exporting a new path, editing, enabling or disabling, removing, and refreshing the exported paths.

  6. NIS Server Management: Click NIS Server Settings, Migrate NIS Maps or Update Slave Servers as required.

    For more details, see Section 7.15.1, iManager-Based Management for NIS Server.

  7. UNIX User Management: Click Change NIS Password or Directory Access as required.

    For more details, see Section 7.15.1, iManager-Based Management for NIS Server.

7.14.7 Managing the Exported Paths

  1. In the Exported Paths list of the NFS Services Administration page, view the list of exported paths.

  2. Select a path in the Exported Paths list to view path details such as the Exported path, Access Control Mode, Global Permissions, and Trusted hosts.

  3. Select a path in the Exported Paths list to manage the exported paths.

    Command-line shared entries, prefixed with (Shared) are also displayed. These entries are typically exported cluster-enabled paths in Active/Active cluster configuration and correspond to the command line share entries present in the load script of cluster resources. These entries cannot be modified. If you stop and restart NFS Server either from the user interface or the Server console, then the shared entries are not available. Share them afresh using the command line.

    You can perform operations such as exporting a new path, viewing or modifying, enabling or disabling, refreshing, and removing the exported paths.

    Exporting a New Path ***use to be bridgehead***

    Click Export to display the Export Options page, where you can export a new path. For details, refer to Exporting a New Path.

    Editing Path Properties ***use to be bridgehead***

    Click Edit to display the Export Options page, where you can view or modify the properties of an exported path. For details, refer to Editing Exported Path Properties.

    Removing a Path ***use to be bridgehead***

    Click Remove to remove the exported path.

    This removes the path from the sys:/exports file, and saves and refreshes the changes on the server side.

7.14.8 Exporting a New Path

  1. In the NFS Server Administration page, click Export to display the Export Options page.

    Figure 7-11 Export Options Page

  2. In the Path field, enter the path in the format /volumename[/dir1[/dir2...]].

  3. In the Access Controls field, select the Independent or NetWare modes of access control mode from the drop-down list.

    Default mode = Independent.

    For more information on Independent and NetWare modes of access, see File Access Modes.

  4. In the Global Permissions section, assign the required access permissions to the trusted host. The default permissions, Read Only access and Anonymous access, are checked by default.

    When you add a trusted host for the exported path and give it RO/RW, Root, or Anonymous access in the Trusted Hosts table, then the corresponding global access check box is disabled (unchecked). If there are no trusted hosts with this access, then global access permissions are restored.

    • Check Read/Write to give read/write access to the trusted hosts. This access is denied by default.
    • Check Root access to give root access to the trusted hosts. This access is denied by default.
    • Uncheck Anonymous access to deny anonymous access to the trusted host. This access is given by default.
  5. In the Trusted Hosts and Access Permissions section, enter the hostname that you want to make a trusted host for the exported path.

    The trusted hostname cannot have null or special characters. The trusted hostname can have up to 256 characters.

    You can enter trusted hostnames in the following formats:

    • Individual hosts based on complete or short DNS name or IP address.
      • The IP address. For example,

        aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd.

      • Complete or short DNS name. For example,

        xyz or xyz.us.acme.com

    • A complete DNS domain, or a subnet based on network number.
      • DNS domain is distinguished from a complete DNS hostname by a prefixed dot (.). For example, to trust all the hosts in the us.acme.com DNS domain, enter

        .us.acme.com

      • The network or subnet component is prefixed by an at sign (@). For example, to trust all hosts in the 129.144.255 network, enter

        @129.144.255

        If the network prefixes are not byte-aligned, the syntax allows a mask length to be specified explicitly following a slash (/) delimiter.For example, to mask the 22 leftmost contiguous significant bits in the corresponding IP address (for example, for a subnet with net number 129.144.132 and net mask 255.255.252.0 ), enter

        @129.144.132/22

  6. Click the Add symbol (+) to add the host to the trusted host list.

  7. Check the the Deny, RO (Read-Only), RW (Read-Write), Root, or Anonymous check boxes as required.

    After this, you can add another host to the trustee list.

  8. Click OK to save the modifications and return to the NFS Server Administration page, or click Cancel to cancel the modifications and return to the NFS Server Administration page.

    This updates the etc/exports file on the server and refreshes the NFS Server. When you specify access permissions, the default permissions given in the All row are unchecked.

7.14.9 Editing Exported Path Properties

  1. In the NFS Server Administration page, click Edit after selecting the path from the Exported Paths list.

    This displays the Exports Options page, where you can view and modify the properties of the exported path.

  2. In the Path field, browse or edit to modify the pathname.

  3. Update the access control mode. You can do this by selecting NetWare or Independent as required from the Access Control Mode drop-down list.

  4. Update access permissions for the trusted hosts. For information on assigning access permissions, refer Step 4.

  5. Add the trusted hosts. For information on adding trusted hosts, refer Step 5.

  6. Click the Add symbol (+) beside the text box to add the host to the trusted host list.

  7. Click the Delete symbol (X) beside the text box to delete the trusted host.

  8. Click OK to save the modifications and return to the NFS Server Administration page, or click Cancel to cancel the modifications and return to the NFS Server Administration page.