6.0 Internet Agent Problems

Suggested solutions are provided for the following problems:

No Relay Host Connectivity from the Target Server

Problem: During installation, the Internet Agent Installation program was not able to contact a mail process on the specified relay host. You can fix the problem after the GWIA has been installed.
Possible Cause: The server where you installed the GWIA cannot communicate with the relay host because the default router is not properly configured.
Action: On a Linux server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Linux.)

  1. In Yast, click Network Devices > Network Card.

  2. Click Next to use the default network setup method.

  3. Select the network card, then click Edit.

  4. On the Address tab, click Routing.

  5. In the Default Gateway field, specify the IP address of the default router on your network.

  6. Click OK, click Next, then click Finish.

Action: On a Windows server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Windows.)

  1. Click Start > Control Panel > View network status and tasks > Local Area Connection.

  2. In the Local Area Connection dialog box, click Properties to display the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

  3. In the list on the Networking tab, select Internet Protocol, then click Properties to display the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.

  4. In the Default gateways box, specify the IP address of the default router on your network.

  5. Click OK.

  6. Restart the server to put the new default gateway information into effect.

Refer to your Windows documentation for more information about configuring TCP/IP on Windows.

Possible Cause: There is no SMTP mail service listening at the IP address of the relay host.
Action: Start the mail service on the relay host.
Action: Specify a different relay host.

No Internet Connectivity from the Target Server

Problem: During installation, the Internet Agent Installation program was not able to connect to the Internet. You can fix the problem after the GWIA has been installed.
Possible Cause: The server where you installed the GWIA is not yet correctly configured for TCP/IP.
Action: On a Linux server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Linux.)

  1. In Yast, click Network Devices > Network Card.

  2. Click Next to use the default network setup method.

  3. Select the network card, then click Edit.

  4. On the Address tab, specify the IP address subnet mask, hostname, name server, and routing information.

  5. Make changes as needed to correct the TCP/IP configuration for the server, click Next, then click Finish.

Action: On a Windows server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Windows.)

  1. Click Start > Control Panel > View network status and tasks > Local Area Connection.

  2. In the Local Area Connection dialog box, click Properties to display the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

  3. In the list on the Networking tab, select Internet Protocol, then click Properties to display the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.

  4. Check the TCP/IP configuration information for accuracy.

  5. Click OK to save any changes you have made.

  6. Restart the server.

Refer to your Windows documentation for more information about configuring TCP/IP on Windows.

Possible Cause: The server where you installed the GWIA cannot communicate with the Internet because the default router is not properly configured.
Action: On a Linux server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Linux.)

  1. In Yast, click Network Devices > Network Card.

  2. Click Next to use the default network setup method.

  3. Select the network card, then click Edit.

  4. On the Address tab, click Routing.

  5. In the Default Gateway field, specify the IP address of the default router on your network.

  6. Click OK, click Next, then click Finish.

Action: On a Windows server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Windows.)

  1. Click Start > Control Panel > View network status and tasks > Local Area Connection.

  2. In the Local Area Connection dialog box, click Properties to display the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

  3. In the list on the Networking tab, select Internet Protocol, then click Properties to display the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.

  4. In the Default gateways box, specify the IP address of the default router on your network.

  5. Click OK.

  6. Restart the server to put the new default gateway information into effect.

Refer to your Windows documentation for more information about setting up a default router on Windows.

Possible Cause: A firewall is blocking SMTP traffic.
Action: Configure the firewall to allow outbound messages to pass if the source IP address is the IP address of the server where you installed the GWIA. Also configure the firewall to allow inbound messages to pass if the destination IP address is the IP address of the server where you installed the GWIA. In both cases, the required port number is 25. See Opening Ports for GroupWise Agents and Applications in GroupWise Agent and Application Port Numbers in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.
Action: As needed, configure the firewall to accept the following additional types of traffic: POP3 (port 110), IMAP4 (port 143), or LDAP (port 389).
Possible Cause: You are using a dial-up connection to the Internet and it is not configured to dial on demand.
Action: Refer to the documentation accompanying the dial-up router or contact the router software vendor.

Target Server Could Not Perform DNS Resolution

Problem: During installation, the Internet Agent Installation program determined that the server where you installed the GWIA cannot resolve DNS (Domain Name Service) hostnames. You can fix the problem after the GWIA has been installed.
Possible Cause: The server where you installed the GWIA is not yet configured for DNS.
Action: On a Linux server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Linux.)

  1. In Yast, click Network Devices > Network Card.

  2. Click Next to use the default network setup method.

  3. Select the network card, then click Edit.

  4. On the Address tab, click Hostname and Name Server.

  5. In the Name Servers and Domain Search List box, specify the IP address for one to three name servers on your network.

  6. Click OK, click Next, then click Finish.

Action: On a Windows server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Windows.)

  1. Click the Start > Control Panel > View network status and tasks > Local Area Connection.

  2. In the Local Area Connection dialog box, click Properties to display the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

  3. In the list on the Networking tab, select Internet Protocol, then click Properties to display the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.

  4. Click Advanced to display the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box.

  5. Click the DNS tab, then make sure the IP address of at least one DNS name server is listed in the DNS Server Addresses list.

  6. Click OK to save any changes you have made.

  7. Restart the server.

Refer to your Windows documentation for more information about setting up DNS on Windows.

Possible Cause: The DNS server is down or otherwise unavailable.
Action: Contact the administrator of the DNS server to resolve the issue.
Action: Configure the server where you are installing the GWIA to use a different DNS server.

Target Server Not Configured for TCP/IP

Problem: During installation, the Internet Agent Installation program determined that the server where you installed the GWIA is not correctly configured for TCP/IP. You can fix the problem after the GWIA has been installed.
Action: On a Linux server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Linux.)

  1. In Yast, click Network Devices > Network Card.

  2. Click Next to use the default network setup method.

  3. Select the network card, then click Edit.

  4. On the Address tab, specify the IP address subnet mask, hostname, name server, and routing information.

  5. Make changes as needed to correct the TCP/IP configuration for the server, click Next, then click Finish.

Action: On a Windows server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Windows.)

  1. Click Start > Control Panel > View network status and tasks > Local Area Connection.

  2. In the Local Area Connection dialog box, click Properties to display the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box.

  3. In the list on the Networking tab, select Internet Protocol, then click Properties to display the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.

  4. Check the TCP/IP configuration information for accuracy.

  5. Click OK to save any changes you have made.

  6. Restart the server.

Refer to your Windows documentation for more information about configuring TCP/IP on Windows.

Invalid or Unspecified Internet Hostname for Target Server

Problem: During installation, you did not specify a valid Internet hostname for the GWIA to use when resolving Internet addresses. You can fix the problem after the GWIA has been installed.
Possible Cause: The Internet hostname is not yet stored in eDirectory.
Action: In ConsoleOne, browse to and right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties. Click GroupWise > Identification. In the Foreign ID field, provide the Internet hostname of your company (for example, Novell.com).
Possible Cause: The hostname you provided has not been registered and published by your ISP.
Action: Contact your ISP to find out when your hostname will be published. Make sure that your ISP has associated the correct IP address with your hostname. Verify the contents of the MX and A records for your hostname.
Possible Cause: Your hostname as been published for less than 24 hours and your DNS server is still using cached information.
Action: Wait a day and try again.
Possible Cause: Inbound mail is routed through a relay host.
Action: You can ignore this warning if the relay host is configured to forward messages to the server where the GWIA is installed.
Action: If the relay host uses aliasing to forward messages to the server where the GWIA is installed, you must configure the GWIA to handle the alias. In ConsoleOne, browse to and right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties. Click GroupWise > Identification. In the Foreign ID field, provide the alias along with the Internet hostname of your company. Separate the hostnames with a space.

Unverified Hostname for Target Server

Problem: During installation, the Internet Agent Installation program determined that the server where you installed the GWIA does not have a valid hostname. You can fix the problem after the GWIA has been installed.
Action: On a Linux server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Linux.)

  1. In Yast, click Network Devices > Network Card.

  2. Click Next to use the default network setup method.

  3. Select the network card, then click Edit.

  4. On the Address tab, click Hostname and Name Server.

  5. In the Hostname field, specify the correct hostname.

  6. Click OK, click Next, then click Finish.

Action: On a Windows server:

(Steps might vary, depending on your version of Windows.)

  1. Click Start > Control Panel > System and Security > See the name of this computer.

  2. Under Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings, check the computer name.

  3. Click Change settings > Change to correct the computer name.

  4. Click OK.

Refer to your Windows documentation for more information about setting up DNS on Windows.

Specify a Postmaster for RFC Compliance

Problem: During installation, you did not specify a postmaster for the GWIA to send error notifications to. You can fix the problem after you have finished installing the GWIA.

Log Files

Explanation: The GWIA log file is a useful tool for diagnosing problems. It records Internet access activity and provides a variety of configuration, message flow, and productivity information. The GWIA log file contains the same information that scrolls in the message log portion of the of the GWIA server console. The GWIA log file can also be accessed from the GWIA Web console.
Action: You can adjust the amount of information a log file records using the Log Settings page in ConsoleOne, the log switches, or the menu in the GWIA server console. For more information, see Using GWIA Log Files in Internet Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.

SMTP Statistics

Explanation: The Statistics screen, which is accessed from the GWIA server console, lists numbers of error and informational messages. Most of these messages are informational only. The GWIA Web console provides comparable information on the Status page.
Action: Use the statistics to help you resolve GWIA problems.

Messages Sent/Messages Received: These fields display the number of messages the GWIA has sent and received.

Send Threads/Receive Threads: These fields display the number of currently active send and receive threads the GWIA is using to process outgoing and incoming messages. If the number of send or receive threads currently in use is consistently close to the total number allocated, you might want to increase the total number of send or receive threads.

Send Thr Avail/Receive Thr Avail: These fields display the number of available send and receive threads of the total number allocated.

MX Lookup Errs: This field displays the number of times the GWIA queries the Domain Name Server (DNS) for the address of the destination host and receives a SERVER FAIL code message back from the DNS. These messages are deferred and automatically re-queued according to the retry schedule.

Unless the number of MX Lookup Errors is very significant, do not be concerned by these messages. If the number of messages is very significant, you might want to check the DNS to make sure the tables are not corrupted. If you’re using a remote DNS, you might consider setting up a local DNS server. It could also mean that your file server TCP/IP is not correctly configured.

Unknown Hosts: This field displays the number of times the GWIA attempted to do a lookup on a destination host and the hostname did not exist in either the DNS records or in the host table. The GWIA sends back a non-deliverable message to the sender for each Unknown Host message.

TCP/IP Read Errs/ TCP/IP Write Errs: These fields display the number of TCP/IP read or write errors indicating some communication problem occurred. This is a temporary error. These messages are deferred and automatically re-queued according to the retry schedule. Unless the number of TCP/IP read or write errors is very significant, do not be concerned by these messages. If the number of messages is very significant, you might want to contact your Internet service provider to check for anything that could hinder communication, such as network problems or line noise. You might also want to adjust the timeout switches, particularly the --te and --tr switches.

Hosts Down: This field displays the number of times the GWIA tried to open a connection with the destination host and received a connection refused status. This is a temporary error. These messages are deferred and automatically re-queued according to the Retry Schedule.

The statistics count the number of times a code or SMTP reply, such as Host Down, comes back to the GWIA. It does not keep track of the mail messages causing these replies. If, for example, a message is deferred and re-queued for four days during the Retry Schedule, each attempt the program makes to send the message results in another SMTP reply or error code.

Retry Schedule: If an Internet host is down or the connection is not made on the Internet, the GWIA defers the message and re-queues it according to the retry schedule. The GWIA program places the message in the /wpgate/gwia/defer directory for 20 minutes. Then it transfers the file to the send directory for another attempt at sending to the Internet. The GWIA makes this attempt three times in one hour and then every four hours for four days. After the four days, if the Internet host remains down, an undeliverable status is sent back to the sender.

Internet Agent Not Sending Messages

Problem: Messages are not returned to the user’s Sent Items folder as undeliverable, and the recipients are not receiving the messages.
Action: Make sure the GWIA is running and is correctly configured in ConsoleOne.
Action: Make sure the MTA is running.
Action: Make sure the GWIA can access the GroupWise domain directory or the MTA for the domain.
Action: Make sure the program is properly configured. Check the startup file to verify that the --dhome switch is pointing to the GWIA directory.
Action: Check the statistics from the GWIA server console or Web console. If any of the fields, such as TCP/IP Read or Write Errors or MX Lookup Errors, have a very significant number, you might want to contact your Internet service provider. See SMTP Statistics for more information.
Action: Check the log file for error messages. You might want to set the log level to Diag and resend problem messages. See Internet Agent Error Messages in GroupWise 2012 Troubleshooting 1: Error Messages for more information.
Action: Make sure the resolv.cfg file is set up correctly. See Internet Connectivity Requirements in Installing the GroupWise Internet Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Installation Guide.

Internet Agent Not Receiving Messages

Problem: The GWIA is not receiving messages from the Internet.
Action: Make sure the GWIA directory has sufficient network rights.
Action: Make sure the GWIA can access the GroupWise domain database or the MTA for the domain.
Action: For a direct link, make sure the GWIA has rights to the domain directory and that the GWIA can access all its subdirectories.
Action: Make sure the GWIA is properly configured. Check the startup file to verify that the --dhome switch is pointing to the GWIA directory.
Action: Check if you can ping the GWIA server from another Internet server.
Action: Send a test message from a UNIX Internet computer using the sendmail -v option. The -v option shows all the SMTP reply codes for the message. For example, use the following syntax:
echo test | /usr/lib/sendmail -v user@internet_domain 

Internet Agent Locking Up

Problem: The GWIA locks up or hangs.
Possible Cause: Bad message file
Possible Cause: Bad configuration file in the 000.prc directory
Possible Cause: Bad domain record
Possible Cause: Bad domain user record
Possible Cause: Software incompatibility
Possible Cause: Hardware failure
Action: Check the dates of the executables and make sure you are using the most current software and patches. Apply the latest versions for the GWIA as well as for the TCP/IP kernel. Make sure you meet the minimum version and system requirements for the operating system, as listed in Internet Agent System Requirements in Installing the GroupWise Internet Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Installation Guide.
Action: Check for bad message files. Move all files currently in any queues in the send, receive, defer, result, wpcsin, wpcsout, or 000.prc/gwwork directories and let the GWIA run idle without processing any messages. If the GWIA can run idle without locking, a bad message is probably causing it to lock.

Start copying the files back to the appropriate directory queues starting with the newest file to the oldest. This approach assumes the oldest file caused the lock and allows the GWIA to process the messages that got backed up before dealing with the bad file. Delete the bad file when you find it. Because the file is encrypted, there is no way to determine who sent the message.

Action: Check for a bad configuration file. One of the setup files in the 000.prcdirectory might be damaged and therefore causing problems. Before removing or changing anything, back up your directories. Be sure to back up any files you want in the 000.prc directory such as the log and accounting files. Remove all the files in the 000.prc and restart the GWIA.
Action: Remove directories and have the MTA and the GWIA re-create new ones. Be sure to back up the whole GWIA directory and all subdirectories before deleting anything. Shut down the GWIA and the MTA. Remove the send, receive, defer, result, wpcsin, wpcsout, 000.prcdirectories. Restart the MTA first to re-create the wpcsin and wpcsout directories, then restart the GWIA to re-create the other directories (empty). This approach is often effective for solving locking problems, although it is not very effective for isolating and determining what is causing the problem.
Action: If the GWIA continues to lock after removing and re-creating the directories, you might want to rebuild the domain database for the domain where the GWIA is installed in case there are database structural problems. If it’s a primary domain database, you must rebuild the database from itself. If it’s a secondary domain database, you can rebuild it from the primary domain database or rebuild it from itself. See Rebuilding Domain or Post Office Databases in Databases in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.
Action: Run the GWIA on a different server that is already set up and running well (without problems with requestors, network interface cards, and so on). If the GWIA runs well with the same configuration on a different server, then the hardware is probably causing problems.

Internet Agent Cannot Access the Domain

Problem: The GWIA cannot access its input and output queues in the domain.
Explanation: When the domain is located on a remote Windows server, the GWIA must be started with the /user and /password switches so it can log in to the remote server.
Action: Make sure these switches have been specified in the GWIA .cfg file.
Action: Make sure the user has sufficient rights to access the /domain/wpgate/gwia directory.
Action: Make sure the password is correct and current.

Internet Agent Doesn’t Send Outgoing Mail

Problem: The GWIA seems to receive and process messages, but never sends them.
Action: If you are using an external domain to simplify addressing for your users, make sure the external domain type is set to Non-GroupWise Domain, not External Domain. In ConsoleOne, in the GroupWise View, delete the external domain, then create a non-GroupWise domain.

Internet Agent Fails to Respond to Configuration Changes Made in ConsoleOne

Problem: You change a GWIA access control setting in ConsoleOne, but the GWIA does not respond to the change.
Action: Exit, then restart the GWIA so it rereads its access control database (gwac.db).

Administrator Wants to Prevent Certain Types of Messages from Passing through the Internet Agent

Problem: Message flow through the GWIA is being hindered because large numbers of undesirable types of messages are passing through.
Explanation: You want to prevent messages larger than a specified size from coming into the GroupWise system through the GWIA.
Action: In ConsoleOne, browse to and select the domain where the GWIA is installed. Right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties > Access Control. Select Default Class of Service, then click Edit.

To restrict the size of incoming messages, click SMTP Incoming, select Allow Incoming Messages, select Prevent Messages Larger than X Kbytes, specify the maximum message size in kilobytes, then click OK.

To restrict the size of outgoing messages, click SMTP Outgoing, select Allow Outgoing Messages, select Prevent Messages Larger than X Kbytes, specify the maximum message size in kilobytes, then click OK.

Explanation: By default, the GWIA downloads only 100 messages at a time. You want to increase or decrease this number.
Action: In ConsoleOne, browse to and select the Domain object where the GWIA is installed. Right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties > Access Control. Select Default Class of Service, then click Edit. Click POP3, modify the setting in the Maximum Number of Messages to Download field as needed (valid settings range from 1 to 1000), then click OK.

POP3 Client Users Can’t Send Internet Mail through the Internet Agent

Problem: Users of POP3 mail clients are unable to send mail through the GWIA.
Possible Cause: Allow Message Relaying has been turned off.
Action: Make sure Allow Message Relaying is turned on. In ConsoleOne, browse to and select the Domain object where the GWIA is installed. Right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties. Click Access Control > SMTP Relay, select Allow Message Relaying, then click OK.

POP3 Client Users Can’t Access the GroupWise Address Book through the LDAP Services of the Internet Agent

Problem: POP3 client users cannot look up addresses using the LDAP directory services created in their browser.
Possible Cause: The GWIA does not have access to a post office to retrieve information from the GroupWise Address Book by accessing a post office database (wphost.db).
Action: In ConsoleOne, browse to and select the Domain object where the GWIA is installed. Right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties. Click Access Control > LDAP Public, then make sure a valid post office has been specified. Make sure the post office access mode includes direct access. Make sure that message file processing has not been turned off. See Adjusting the Number of POA Threads for Message File Processing in Post Office Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.

Extended Characters in User Names Prevent Delivery through the Internet Agent

Problem: Messages arriving from the Internet through the GWIA addressed to recipients who have extended characters in their user names are undeliverable.
Explanation: User names are part of message header files. According to RFC822 and RFC1521 standards, text in header fields must be composed of printable ASCII characters.
Action: As a workaround, create a nickname for affected users without the extended characters. See Creating a Nickname for a User in Users in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.

Messages Sent Out through the Internet Agent Don’t Wrap When Displayed by Recipients

Problem: Recipients of GroupWise messages sent across the Internet through the GWIA complain that the messages do not wrap correctly when viewed in their email client software.
Action: Enable line wrapping in the recipient’s email software.
Action: To specify how you want lines to wrap when displayed by the recipient, browse to and select the Domain object where the GWIA is installed. Right-click the GWIA object, then click Properties. Click SMTP/MIME Settings > Message Formatting, specify a setting for Line Wrap Length for Message Text on Outbound Mail, then click OK.

You can also specify the line wrap setting using the --wrap switch in the GWIA startup file (gwia.cfg).

The line wrap setting affects only RFC822-formatted messages, not MIME messages.

The Internet Agent Cannot Communicate with the Message Transfer Agent (MTA)

Problem: The GWIA is not receiving messages to send out across the Internet.
Explanation: The MTA distributes messages between post offices, gateways, and domains. A MTA is required in each domain. If the MTA is offline, outgoing messages are queued in the MTA directories. When the MTA is brought online, all queued messages are routed.
Action: Make sure the MTA is running and transferring messages. See Monitoring the MTA in Message Transfer Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.
Action: Make sure the MTA is correctly configured in ConsoleOne. See Configuring the MTA in Message Transfer Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.
Action: Check the MTA server console, Web console, or the MTA log files. These sources provide a detailed record of MTA operations. See Using the MTA Server Console, Using the MTA Web Console, and Using MTA Log Files in Message Transfer Agent in the GroupWise 2012 Administration Guide.
Action: Check the Status portion of the MTA server console to find out whether the domain, post office, or gateway is closed. See MTA Status Box Shows a Closed Location.
Action: Make sure you can send messages between post offices. See Message Does Not Arrive between Post Offices.

The Internet Agent Displays a 450 MX Record Lookup Failure

Problem: The GWIA has requested a lookup from the Domain Name Server (DNS) and did not get a response.
Action: Check the resolv.cfg file for correct configuration.

The resolv.cfg file should be in the following format:

domain your_domain_name 
nameserver ip_address
nameserver ip_address 
nameserver ip_address 

The domain name is first, followed by up to three nameserver IP addresses. The following is a sample resolv.cfg file:

domain sgunix.org 
nameserver 172.16.5.18 
Possible Cause: The IP address to your DNS has changed.
Action: Update the resolv.cfg file.
Possible Cause: TCP/IP is configured incorrectly.
Possible Cause: There is a problem with your network interface card.
Possible Cause: There is a problem with your network cabling.
Possible Cause: The DNS server is down.
Possible Cause: IP filtering has been added to the routers so the GWIA cannot see the DNS server.
Action: Ping the name server IP address to see if it is reachable from the gateway station.
Action: Ping the LAN segment router IP address.
Possible Cause: Outbound ports are disabled. TCP/IP can use port 1024 through 2099 or some other range of outbound ports for sending.
Action: Check with your Internet service provider for the outbound ports it uses.

The Internet Agent Experiences a Problem with Rules Causing Looping

Problem: An infinite message loop can occur when a user has turned on a rule automatically replying to messages. If a message is then sent to another user who has an automatic reply rule, or to a list server, an infinite loop can occur.
Explanation: GroupWise has built-in counters to prevent most infinite loops, primarily those occurring within the GroupWise system. The following safeguards have been implemented by the GWIA to prevent the looping of messages that go through the gateway:
  • Messages generated by a rule now have the From address changed to POSTMASTER@foreign_name.

  • A Reply To field has been added with the real user address so most mailers will reply to the user, but list servers that reply to the From address will reply to the postmaster instead.

  • An Errors To field has been added with the POSTMASTER foreign name address. With this field, undeliverable messages won’t be sent to a mailbox that has a rule associated with it.

  • If a message is sent to a user that is defined on a foreign domain or gateway, the Reply To field will contain the postmaster’s actual resolved address. This allows the postmaster message to get to a postmaster who might not be on the GroupWise system.

Action: The infinite loop protection built into GroupWise might not work for some messages going through the gateway to Internet list servers. Such infinite loops must be resolved on a case-by-case basis.