Administration Guide

AuthorsFrank Bodammer, Stefan Dirsch, Olaf Donjak, Roman Drahtmüller, Torsten Duwe, Thorsten Dubiel, Karl Eichwalder, Thomas Fehr, Stefan Fent, Werner Fink, Kurt Garloff, Carsten Groß, Andreas Grünbacher, Franz Hassels, Andreas Jaeger, Klaus Kämpf, Hubert Mantel, Johannes Meixner, Lars Müller, Matthias Nagorni, Anas Nashif, Siegfried Olschner, Peter Pöml, Heiko Rommel, Marcus Schäfer, Nicolaus Schüler, Klaus Singvogel, Hendrik Vogelsang, Klaus G. Wagner, Christian Zoz
EditorsJörg Arndt, Antje Faber, Berthold Gunreben, Roland Haidl, Jana Jaeger, Edith Parzefall, Ines Pozo, Thomas Rölz, Thomas Schraitle, Rebecca Walter
TranslatorsOlaf Niepolt, Tino Tanner
Legal Notice

Table of Contents

1. New Features in the Administration Guide
2. Typographical Conventions
3. Acknowledgment
I. Installation
1. Installation
1.1. Text-Based Installation with YaST
1.2. Starting SUSE LINUX
1.3. Special Installation Procedures
1.4. Tips and Tricks
1.5. ATAPI CD­-ROM Hangs While Reading
1.6. Assigning Permanent Device File Names to SCSI Devices
1.7. Partitioning for Experts
1.8. LVM Configuration
1.9. Soft RAID
2. Updating the System and Package Management
2.1. Updating SUSE LINUX
2.2. Software Changes from Version to Version
2.3. RPM — the Package Manager
II. Configuration
3. YaST in Text Mode (ncurses)
3.1. Usage
3.2. Restriction of Key Combinations
3.3. Starting the Individual Modules
3.4. YaST Online Update
4. The X Window System
4.1. Optimizing the Installation of the X Window System
4.2. Installing and Configuring Fonts
4.3. OpenGL — 3D Configuration
5. Printer Operation
5.1. Printing Basics
5.2. Preconditions for Printing
5.3. Configuring a Printer with YaST
5.4. Configuring Applications
5.5. The CUPS Printing System
5.6. Printing from Applications
5.7. Command-Line Tools for the CUPS Printing System
5.8. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
6. Additional Information on Printing
6.1. Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports
6.2. Manual Configuration of LPRng and lpdfilter
6.3. The LPRng Print Spooler
6.4. Command-Line Tools for LPRng
6.5. The Print Filter of LPRng and lpdfilter
6.6. Working with Ghostscript
6.7. Working with a2ps
6.8. Reformatting PostScript with psutils
6.9. ASCII Text Encoding
7. Booting and Boot Managers
7.1. Booting a PC
7.2. Boot Concepts
7.3. Map Files, GRUB, and LILO
7.4. Booting with GRUB
7.5. Uninstalling the Linux Boot Loader
7.6. Creating Boot CDs
8. Linux on Mobile Devices
8.2. SCPM — System Configuration Profile Management
8.3. IrDA — Infrared Data Association
8.4. Bluetooth — Wireless Connections
9. Power Management
9.1. Power Saving Functions
9.2. APM
9.3. ACPI
9.4. Rest for the Hard Disk
9.5. powersave
9.6. The YaST Power Management Module
III. System
10. SUSE LINUX on AMD64 Systems
10.1. Hardware
10.2. Software
10.3. Running 32-bit Software
10.4. Software Development in a 64-bit Environment
10.5. For More Information
11. The Linux Kernel
11.1. Kernel Update
11.2. Kernel Sources
11.3. Kernel Configuration
11.4. Kernel Modules
11.5. Hardware Detection with the Help of hwinfo
11.6. Settings in the Kernel Configuration
11.7. Compiling the Kernel
11.8. Installing the Kernel
11.9. Cleaning Your Hard Disk after Compilation
12. Special Features of SUSE LINUX
12.1. Linux Standards
12.2. Hints on Special Software Packages
12.3. Booting with the Initial Ramdisk
12.4. linuxrc
12.5. The SUSE Rescue System
12.6. Virtual Consoles
12.7. Keyboard Mapping
12.8. Local Adjustments — I18N and L10N
13. The SUSE LINUX Boot Concept
13.1. The init Program
13.2. Runlevels
13.3. Changing Runlevels
13.4. Init Scripts
13.5. The YaST Runlevel Editor
13.6. SuSEconfig and /etc/sysconfig
13.7. The YaST sysconfig Editor
IV. Network
14. Linux in the Network
14.1. TCP/IP — The Protocol Used by Linux
14.2. IPv6 — The Next Generation Internet
14.3. Manual Network Configuration
14.4. Network Integration
14.5. Routing in SUSE LINUX
14.6. DNS — Domain Name System
14.7. LDAP — A Directory Service
14.8. NIS — Network Information Service
14.9. NFS — Shared File Systems
14.10. DHCP
14.11. Time Synchronization with xntp
15. The Apache Web Server
15.1. Basics
15.2. Setting up the HTTP Server with YaST
15.3. Apache Modules
15.4. New Features of Apache 2
15.5. Threads
15.6. Installation
15.7. Configuration
15.8. Using Apache
15.9. Active Contents
15.10. Virtual Hosts
15.11. Security
15.12. Troubleshooting
15.13. For More Information
16. File Synchronization
16.1. Data Synchronization Software
16.2. Determining Factors for Selecting a Program
16.3. Introduction to InterMezzo
16.4. Introduction to Unison
16.5. Introduction to CVS
16.6. Introduction to mailsync
17. Heterogenous Networks
17.1. Samba
17.2. Netatalk
17.3. NetWare Emulation with MARSNWE
18. Internet
18.1. The smpppd as Dial-up Assistant
18.2. Configuring an ADSL or T-DSL Connection
18.3. Proxy Server: Squid
19. Security in the Network
19.1. Masquerading and Firewalls
19.2. SSH — Secure Shell, the Safe Alternative
19.3. Network Authentication — Kerberos
19.4. Installing and Administering Kerberos
19.5. Security and Confidentiality
V. Appendixes
A. File Systems in Linux
A.1. Glossary
A.2. Major File Systems in Linux
A.3. Some Other Supported File Systems
A.4. Large File Support in Linux
A.5. For More Information
B. Access Control Lists in Linux
B.1. Advantages of ACLs
B.2. Definitions
B.3. Handling ACLs
B.4. Support by Applications
C. Manual Page of e2fsck
D. Manual Page of reiserfsck
E. The GNU General Public License
E.1. GNU General Public License
E.2. GNU General, Public License

List of Figures

1.1. Language Selection
1.2. The Main Menu of linuxrc
1.3. linuxrc Installation Menu
1.4. Selecting the Source Medium in linuxrc
1.5. Activating LVM During Installation
1.6. YaST: LVM Partitioner
1.7. Creating LVM Partitions
1.8. Adding a Volume Group
1.9. Partition List
1.10. Logical Volume Management
1.11. Creating Logical Volumes
2.1. Updating the Software
3.1. Main Window of YaST in Text Mode
3.2. The Software Installation Module
5.1. The Printing Workflow
5.2. Overview of the Filtering Procedure
5.3. Configuration 1
5.4. Configuration 2
5.5. Configuration 3
5.6. Configuration 4
5.7. Configuration 5
6.1. The Individual Steps with pstops
9.1. YaST Power Management: Scheme Selection
9.2. YaST Power Management: Overview of Existing Schemes
9.3. YaST Power Management: Adding a Scheme
9.4. YaST Power Management: Battery Charge Level
9.5. YaST Power Management: ACPI Settings
12.1. System Information
12.2. Loading Modules
12.3. Selecting SCSI Drivers
12.4. Entering Parameters for a Module
12.5. Selection of Source Media in linuxrc
12.6. Source Medium for the Rescue System
12.7. Network Protocols
13.1. YaST: Runlevel Editor
13.2. YaST: System Configuration Using the sysconfig Editor
14.1. Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP
14.2. TCP/IP Ethernet Packet
14.3. Configuring the Hardware Parameters
14.4. Structure of an LDAP Directory
14.5. YaST: NIS Server Configuration Tool
14.6. YaST: Changing the Directory and Synchronizing Files for a NIS Server
14.7. YaST: Setting Request Permissions for a NIS Server
14.8. Setting Domain and Address of NIS Server
14.9. NFS Client Configuration with YaST
14.10. NFS Server Configuration Tool
14.11. Configuring an NFS Server with YaST
B.1. Minimum ACL: ACL Entries Compared to Permission Bits
B.2. Extended ACL: ACL Entries Compared to Permission Bits

List of Tables

1.1. Estimated Disk Space Requirements for Different Installations
2.1. Comparison POSIX 1992 vs. POSIX 2001
2.2. The Most Important RPM Query Options (-q [-p] …package)
2.3. RPM Verify Options
4.1. Sections in /etc/X11/XF86Config
4.2. Parameters of fc-list
4.3. Supported 3D Hardware
12.1. ulimit: Setting Resources for the User
13.1. Available Runlevels
13.2. Possible init Script Options
14.1. Several Protocols in the TCP/IP Protocol Family
14.2. Specific Addresses
14.3. Private IP Address Domains
14.4. Various IPv6 Prefixes
14.5. Parameters for /etc/host.conf
14.6. Databases Available via /etc/nsswitch.conf
14.7. Configuration Options for NSS Databases
14.8. Some Start-Up Scripts for Network Programs
14.9. Commonly Used Object Classes and Attributes
14.10. User Groups and Their Access Grants
14.11. Types of Access
14.12. Permissions for Exported File System
16.1. Features of the File Synchronization Tools -- = very poor, - = poor or not available, o = medium, + = good, ++ = excellent, x = available
A.1. File System Types in Linux
A.2. Maximum Sizes of File Systems (On-Disk Format)
B.1. ACL Entry Types
B.2. Masking Access Permissions

List of Examples

1.1. Example df Output
2.1. List with df -h
2.2. rpm -q -i wget
2.3. Script to Search for Packages
4.1. Screen Section of the File /etc/X11/XF86Config
5.1. Error Message of lpd
5.2. CUPS Network Server Broadcast
6.1. /etc/modules.conf: First Parallel Port
6.2. /etc/modules.conf: Interrupt Mode for the First Parallel Port
6.3. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ascii2ps: ASCII to PostScript Conversion
6.4. /etc/lpdfilter/test/pre: PostScript Reformatting
6.5. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Enabling Duplex Printing
6.6. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Disabling Duplex Printing
6.7. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Enabling Tray 0
6.8. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Enabling Tray 2
6.9. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Margin Adjustments
6.10. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Changing the Position of the Printed Area
6.11. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ CMYK Gamma Correction
6.12. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ RGB Gamma Correction
6.13. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ Printer Reset
6.14. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/pre: Activating a PostScript Preload
6.15. /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/pre: Inserting a PostScript Preload and a PostScript Reset
6.16. /usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if: Debug Levels
8.1. The File /boot/grub/menu.lst
8.2. File /etc/lilo.conf
8.3. Output of irdadump
12.1. Example of an Entry in /etc/crontab
12.2. Example for /etc/logrotate.conf
12.3. ulimit: Settings in ~/.bashrc
12.4. Example /etc/fstab
13.1. A Minimal INIT INFO Block
14.1. How an IP Address is Written
14.2. Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask
14.3. Sample IPv6 Address
14.4. IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length
14.5. /etc/resolv.conf
14.6. /etc/hosts
14.7. /etc/networks
14.8. /etc/host.conf
14.9. /etc/nsswitch.conf
14.10. Forwarding Options in named.conf
14.11. A Basic /etc/named.conf
14.12. Entry to Disable Logging
14.13. Zone Entry for
14.14. Zone Entry for
14.15. File /var/lib/named/
14.16. Reverse Lookup
14.17. Excerpt from schema.core (line numbering for explanatory reasons)
14.18. slapd.conf: Include Directive for Schemes
14.19. slapd.conf: pidfile and argsfile
14.20. slapd.conf: Access Control
14.21. slapd.conf: Example for Access Control
14.22. slapd.conf: Database-Specific Directives
14.23. Example for an LDIF File
14.24. ldapadd with example.ldif
14.25. LDIF Data for Tux
14.26. Modified LDIF File tux.ldif
14.27. /etc/exports
14.28. The Configuration File /etc/dhcpd.conf
14.29. Additions to the Configuration File
17.1. A CD-ROM Share
17.2. homes Share
17.3. Global Section in smb.conf
17.4. Setting up a Machine Account
17.5. Automated Setup of a Machine Account
18.1. Firewall Configuration: Option 15
18.2. Access Rules
18.3. Access Rules